Development and Condition of Muslim Women
Prevailing Laws and Traditions for Muslim Women
The Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW) is a human right treaty for women. The basic structure of the organization is based upon three principles: equality, non-discrimination and state obligation. This organization has set some rules to eliminate discrimination against women. This organization set some specific rules which the state has to agree with and implement it on their state. POLITICAL REPRESENTATION
Fatwas have been issued in some of the Islamic countries barring Muslim Women from participating in elections on the grounds that it will bring them into contact with men. Such Fatwas hardly had any impact on women and the Muslim voters; who promptly ignored them. A fatwa banning Muslim women’s participation in elections (as contestants) has also been issued with the rider that if they still participate in elections, they may do so wearing the veil.
The Muslim civil code has provided the Muslim man with a right to polygamy, though the prophet mentioned the subject only once. Moreover, a Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim whereas a man can. Contrary to the general notion of equality, a husband is also granted a partial unilateral right of divorce. He can dissolve his marriage by uttering the word 'talaq' thrice even without stating the reasons and in the absence of his wife who merely needs to be informed. On the other hand, a woman can divorce her husband only if: * An agreement is made before or after the marriage by which she is at liberty to divorce herself from her husband under certain specified conditions which are not opposed to the policies of Islamic Law. * Unawareness about his whereabouts for 4 years.
* failure to get maintenance for 2 years,
* impotency, insanity of the husband, or if he is suffering from some venereal disease, * cruelty and option of puberty i.e. if she was married before the age of 15.
RIGHTS OF A MUSLIM WIDOW ON HER HUSBAND’S PROPERTY
* The widow has to give full account of all the income and profits of the estate. * She cannot sell or gift her property to anyone.
* She can file a suit for the recovery of the mahr –debt. * She can satisfy her mahr debt out of the rents and profits of the property. RAPE LAW
According to the sunnah, a woman should not be punished for having been coerced into having sex. This attitude towards rape is discussed in the following hadith: During the time of Muhammad punishment was inflicted on the rapist on the solitary evidence of the woman who was raped by him. Wa'il ibn Hujr reports of an incident when a woman was raped. Later, when some people came by, she identified and accused the man of raping her. They seized him and brought him to Allah's messenger, who said to the woman, "Go away, for Allâh has forgiven you," but of the man who had raped her, he said, "Stone him to death." (Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud). According to a Sunni hadith, the punishment for committing rape is death, there is no blame attached to the victim. According to Al-Mawardi, an 11th century specialist in Islamic jurisprudence (sharia), if either the victim or a witness kills the perpetrator of rape during the crime, in order to prevent furthering the violence of the act, the killing is permissible and is exempt from the laws of murder and killing. However right now it is far from uncommon for a woman who raises claims of rape to be not only denied justice, but to be charged as a criminal herself for committing fornication or adultery. DRESS CODE
Hijab is the Quranic requirement that Muslims, both male and female, dress and behave modestly. The most important Quranic verse relating to hijab is sura , which says, "And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts and not to display their adornment except that which ordinarily appears thereof and to draw their...
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