Muscle Physiology

Topics: Muscle, Muscular system, Isometric exercise Pages: 6 (593 words) Published: September 29, 2014
Muscle Physiology
Purpose:

What is the purpose of this exercise?
Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise? If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken.

Refer to the appendix of this manual if you need a tutorial on how to make graphs in Microsoft Excel®. Exercise 1: Muscle Twitch
Data Table 1A: Muscle Twitch of Rectus Data Table 1B: Muscle Twitch of Lateralis Eye Muscle Quadriceps Femoris
Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
10
20
310
420
530
640
730
820
910
105
112
120
Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
310
620
930
1235
1540
1835
2130
2425
2722
3015
3312
365
390

Data Table 1C: Muscle Twitch of Plantaris
Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
55
1015
1520
2025
2530
3032
3536
4040
4538
5035
5532
6025
6522
7018
7515
8012
8510
905
953
1000

Questions

A.What is a muscle twitch?

B.According to the graphs, which muscle has the fastest twitch? Why?

C.What is the latent period and why does it occur?

Exercise 2: Treppe: The Staircase Effect

Data Table 2: Treppe
Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
32
60
94
120
158
180
2110
240
2712
300
3315
360
3915
420
4515

Questions:

A.Why is treppe an important phenomenon for athletes to understand?

B.Physiologically, what causes treppe to occur?

Exercise 3: Wave Summation (Temporal Summation)

Data Table 3: Wave Summation
Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
35
53
78
95
1113
139
1520
1715
1925
210

Questions:

A.Explain why wave summation occurs.

B.Can summation go on infinitely? Why or why not?

Exercise 4: Tetanus

Data Table 4A: Incomplete Tetanus Data Table 4B: Complete Tetanus Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
35
53
77
95
119
137
1511
179
1915
2113
2415
2713
3015
Time (milliseconds)Tension (kilogram-force)
00
35
57
79
911
1113
1315
1517
1720
1920
2120
2420
2710
300

Questions:

A.What is the difference between complete and incomplete tetanus?

B.Will muscle fatigue occur quicker in complete or incomplete tetanus? Explain your reasoning.

Exercise 5: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue

Data Table 5: Muscle Fatigue
TrialStart Time (seconds)End Time (seconds)Duration (seconds) 1
2
3

Questions:

A.Explain why muscles get fatigued.

B.Which muscle or muscle groups became fatigued with this exercise?

C.What causes the burning sensation in a muscle, and how does that sensation affect muscle contraction?

D.What might have happened in this exercise if more rest was built into the procedure?

Exercise 6: Isometric and Isotonic Contractions

Data Table 6: Isometric and Isotonic Contractions
Trial 1Trial 2Trial 3
Tension
Length

Type of Contraction

Questions:

A.Which types of muscles do isometric contractions?

B.What happened to the muscle length and tension with each successive trial while doing isotonic contractions? Why do you suppose this occurred?

Conclusions:
Describe how muscles are designed to receive stimuli. How does this design support their ability to contract?
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