Dr. Howard Gardner also the Professor of Education at Harvard University developed the theory of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 (Campbell 12). This principle is well known to most teachers. Although people disagree with his theory, Gardner believes that rather than a single intelligence, we acquire all seven intelligences in different amounts. All seven Gardner’s intelligences should be incorporated in every lesson, to include; linguistic, logical-mathematical, body kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal.
Howard Gardner defines intelligences as “the biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture” (Gardner 23). Gardner proposes seven different intelligences to account for a more broad range of human potential in children and adults (Gardner 24). Intelligences are things one can do, Such as figuring out strategies or skills. Intelligences are focused on how much, for instance high amounts of intelligence are preferable to low amounts. Intelligence is usually linked to a certain domain of content such as verbal or musical ability. The seven intelligences Gardner defined are: linguistic, logical-mathematical, body-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal (Steenhagen).
Linguistic intelligence is defined as having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language to express oneself (Nolen). It also allows one to use language as a means to remember information (Steenhagen). Linguistic intelligence can be assessed by an IQ test and an ACT test (Helding). Characteristics of a linguistic student would be as follows: spells easily, memorizes easily, enjoys word games, and develop high level auditory skills. Linguistics is one of the two intelligences that schools and cultures focus on the most.
Logical-Mathematical intelligence consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively, and think logically (Dickinson). Children first explore this intelligence by ordering and re-ordering objects (Kazu). These children usually do extremely well in the traditional classroom because of their ability to follow logical sequencing. Students with this intelligence are able to conform to the roll of a model student (Gardner 30). Characteristics of these children are that they enjoy computer games and puzzles, have organized thoughts, and notice and use numbers, shapes and patterns (Steenhagen). This intelligence is the second most focused on in schools and cultures.
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to understand through using your body. People can use their body in expressive skilled ways for a distinct purpose (Campbell 45). They have very fine motor skills of the fingers and hands and control of their gross motor movements (Helding). Their characteristics go together with their ability to manipulate objects, and to carry out delicate movements using precise control (Gardner 27). Children with bodily intelligence usually perform well in the arts and athletics. Some characteristics of these children are their coordination, use their body language, they are hands-on learners, and have good body control. Students with bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are sometime labeled as fidgety children. These abilities lead to professions such as surgeons, carpenters, plumbers, dancers, and athletes.
Spatial intelligence gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems (Campbell 14). This intelligence is not limited to visual domains (Nolen). Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children (Nolen). Children that have spatial intelligence have the ability to “think in pictures”; they perceive the visual world and recreate it in the mind of on paper (Dickinson). They view objects from different areas and they actualize mental pictures. People with spatial...
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Helding, Lynn. “Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences.” Journal of Singing 66.2
Nolen, Jennifer L. “Multiple intelligences in the classroom.” Education 124.0 (2003): 115+.
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