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Multiculturalism

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Multiculturalism has different types of meanings; at one level the word means Acceptance, appreciation or promotion of multiple cultures. This is usually applied to the demographic make up of a particular place; especially at organizational levels e.g. Businesses, schools, neighborhoods, cities and nations. But in this particular sense Multiculturalism approximates to respect for diversity. Multiculturalism may also describe persons who posses more than one culture in them (persons who grew up with a lot of cultural identity which is sometimes called Bicultural). Politically the term means; advocacy of increasing equitable status to different religious and ethnic groups, without promoting a specific religious, ethnic or cultural community values as central multiculturalism as " cultural mosaic " which is often contrasted with concepts such as social integration and assimilation which is often described as "salad" rather than a " melting point."

Origins of Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism was said to originate in 1965, this was due to the preliminary report given by the Canadian royal commission of biculturalism and bilingualism. This two were cited as the quintessential source of Multiculturalism. The commission gave a final report and was published between 1967 and 1970; this became the first publication that talked about a multicultural story, thus the term multiculturalism was formed. The term has been used to illustrate cultural diversity, which has mainly based on the distinctiveness and identity of ones native ethnicity and language; but this was not necessarily a biological function. (Ronald L & Jackson)
The initial understanding of the term Multiculturalism mainly means that it is the effort of protecting and preserving Aboriginal or minority cultures. A lot of Democratic states consider enabling there consider enabling there minority ethnic groups by granting them Autonomity and political self representation. This made the term Multiculturalism gain a lot of popularity in the 9170s, especially in nations like Australia which wanted to follow Canada's lead. This Trend soon became common in USSR, and during the 1976 constitution 16 autonomous ethnic republics were recognized. (Ronald, L & Jackson)

Causes of Multiculturalism
Globalization widely caused multiculturalism, it was brought about by colonization and it simply means coming together of different cultures, societies and economics. It is also through this process that the distance to another became relatively smaller. It was not long that there were inequalities in the world; which was between the rich (north) and the poor (south), and soon the south grew bigger through globalization. Migration is another main cause of Multiculturalism, especially labor Migration and forced migration. Whereby people from different cultures, had to move to other countries there by the different cultures mixed (Multiculturalism and Will Kymlicka).
America has the most racially and a cultural population in the World and this diversity has only increased over the years due to immigration which is another great cause of Multiculturalism. As this people come to America they come along with their cultures and distinctive ways of life. In the past few years many people have immigrated to the U.S illegally leading to a growing number of illegal immigrants (Howard, K &Pintozzi, D).

Negative Effects
There are many negative effects caused by Multiculturalism, and one serious, effect is racism and Xenophobia which are powerful tools that motivate people. This can be seen by the examples of the Cold war and Nazi German (Some negative effects of multiculturalism).
Multiculturalism has created a lot of cultural diversity in most cities in the World; London being one of the most cultural cities in the world has not been left behind. But there are many negative effects of this Multicultural city. When you spend some time in London you will notice the language barrier that is present in many of its inhabitants. This is mainly caused by lack of confidence or the willing to learn, this is also because many of its residents don't bother to educate themselves to speak one common language spoken in the city (The negative aspects of Multiculturalism).

Benefits of Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism has brought about many benefits to many countries across the world, in Canada there are many different races from African, Indian, Latin, Asian etc. we can give Canada as an example because it is the most Multicultural Country in the World. A lot of the countries success can be attributed to Multiculturalism; this is mainly due to Immigrants coming to Canada (Samuda, 1984). Therefore Multiculturalism has brought about a lot of difference in Canada (Multiculturalism in Canada: the Benefits of a Multicultural society).
Multiculturalism also benefits a country a lot, when a country has a multicultural society like in the case of Australia; which has now been enriched with intellectual, artistic and other many other attributes of immigrant cultures. It has also been discovered that the development of a Multicultural society in Australia will help the country, for example native born Australians will learn other foreign languages apart from English (Walter, J & Margret, M).

Multiculturalism and conflicts
In many Multicultural societies conflicts are always bound to occur any time, At times in institutions where departments are bound to take Multicultural initiatives like adding courses that deal with ethnic group experiences. If this and many other things are done without consulting or planning with the existing ethnic studies programs, this is bound to lead to the rise of a conflict in the Institution (Thomas, J, et al).

Multiculturalism in America
In America Multiculturalism originated in the 1950s, this was when there was the civil rites movement. This movement brought with it issues regarding Inequality, discrimination and oppression. People mainly put there demands on social and political institutions for their social recognition. In the 19th and 20th centuries Charles H. Wesley, W.E.B Duboi, George Washington Carver, All played an important role in promoting Multiculturalism and emphasized on the idea of "plural society" (Multiculturalism in America).

The future of Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism in general has a bright future in the west; this is mainly because there are strong forces at work. Especially in modern western societies are going to ensure that there is a bright future for Multiculturalism. These forces are going to ensure that there is public accommodation and recognition of ethno cultural diversity. Multiculturalism is going to be enforced by constitutional norms of tolerance, public values and many others which will Multiculturalism are here to stay (Wessendorf, S).
In respect to immigrant groups the situation is harder, and the same factors that encourage multiculturalism in relation to historic minorities. They see the ability to contemplate Multiculturalism for immigrant groups. These policies have worked well under low risk conditions. But immigrants are seen as illegal and bound to bring a lot of problems. These perceptions bring about a lot of problems to forces that support multiculturalism.
In my opinion Multiculturalism, is a way to connect people from different backgrounds and ethnic beliefs to bring people together. When one learns about the cultures of another person he tends to understand him more, and learn about where he is from and how people behave there. This brings the two closer unlike before when they did not know about each other. A multicultural society should be encouraged, because people will bring about there talents from there different ethnic backgrounds so as to improve the society. If you look at the many Multicultural nations like America, Britain, Canada and many more, they show a lot of prosperity and development. So I encourage the practice of Multiculturalism in all ways possible so as to make the World a better place.

Conclusion
Multiculturalism has different types of meanings; at one level the word means Acceptance, appreciation or promotion of multiple cultures. This is usually applied to the demographic make up of a particular place; especially at organizational levels e.g. Businesses, schools, neighborhoods, cities and nations. But in this particular sense Multiculturalism approximates to respect for diversity. Multiculturalism may also describe persons who posses more than one culture in them.
Globalization widely caused multiculturalism, it was brought about by colonization and it simply means coming together of different cultures, societies and economics. It is also through this process that the distance to another became relatively smaller. America has the most racially and a cultural population in the World and this diversity has only increased over the years due to immigration which is another great cause of Multiculturalism. As this people come to America they come along with their cultures and distinctive ways of life.
Multiculturalism has created a lot of cultural diversity in most cities in the World; London being one of the most cultural cities in the world has not been left behind. But there are many negative effects of this multicultural city. When you spend some time in London you will notice the language barrier that is present in many of its inhabitants.
Multiculturalism has brought about many benefits to many countries across the world, in Canada there are many different races from African, Indian, Latin, Asian etc. we can give Canada as an example because it is the most Multicultural Country in the World. A lot of the countries success can be attributed to Multiculturalism. In America Multiculturalism originated in the 1950s, this was when there was the civil rites movement. Multiculturalism in general has a bright future in the west; this is mainly because there are strong forces at work. Especially in modern western societies are going to ensure that there is a bright future for Multiculturalism.

Perhaps, the greatest advantage of multiculturalism is that it bridges the chasm of ignorance and arrogance. Let me further make clear this point.
I belong to culture y, and you belong to culture x. You are placed in an entirely different society from mine such that we do not have any direct or face-to-face interaction. I have read - and keep reading ? that in your culture you eat with your hands, you have very minimal technology but much more contact with nature. Mine is directly opposite to yours because we eat with forks, spoons and knives. We are technologically advanced and use all sorts of electronic gadgets. I think apart from my belief that I am more physiologically refined, I also have a sophisticated lifestyle corroborated by the modern, imposing buildings that spread out in my society as well as state-of-the-art cars, information technology, and allied things. Since I have not met any of your kind before nor associated with any of you before, nor ? most importantly ? interacted with you before, I infer that my culture is superior compared to yours. I have closed my mind on this case, and I am not prepared to engage even in the least dialogue that could possibly reverse my opinions. Most people in my culture think in like manner about culture x, for the constant barrage of selective news that they view, listen to, or read within the environment of culture y have solidified their opinions. Above all, I have concluded that culture x is drenched in backwardness while mine is riding on the pinnacle of progress and splendid classiness.

I also think that multiculturalism is good for every human. We can learn a lot of new things for example new languages, new religions, new culture, new food... I really like the food from China and Japan and also from Italy and France. If we only eat the food from our country, it will be boring at the time. Isn't it nice, when we have alternation?
And I also really interesting in learning new languages and get to know the different religions and cultures. That's fascinating for me.

Benefits of Living in a Multicultural Society. Nowadays, multiculturalism is becoming popular in many countries on the world. Multicultural society means in a society where people come from different countries and bring their cultures along with them. I believe people who live in a multicultural society can get three benefits, such as knowing different cultures, making new friends from different countries and improving second-language. Firstly, knowing different cultures helps people increase their knowledge about other nations. People can learn interesting and good things from their nation’s customs. After that, people can use good things in their life to make their lives better and meaningfully. For example, I am living in Canada, a multicultural society, and I have been learning many good things such as saying thanks when somebody helps with the smallest things; I like it because it is different from my country. Besides, multiculturalism is considered a short gap to connect different countries; people can taste Vietnamese, Chinese, Indian food without visiting these countries. Furthermore, making new friends from different countries also gives people a chance to communicate with people from various cultures. We can exchange information and study each other’s culture in conversations and interactions, such as knowing more about their customs, religions and fashions. For example, throughout a conversation with my new friend named Jarah, a Saudi Arabian girl, and I know a Saudi Arabian boy want to marry her, he have to meet her parents and get permission from them. This is the good way to understand and know clearly others’ culture. Finally, living in multicultural society helps people improve their second language. English is an International language, so everybody needs to study it in order to communicate with foreigners. Therefore, living in a Multicultural country forces people to use English, and they use English in daily...

Topic
Multiculturalism means nurturing a religious community where people of all races, ethnicities, and cultures see their cultural identities reflected and affirmed in every aspect of congregational life—worship, fellowship, leadership, governance, religious education, social justice, etc. Multiculturalism means that we create religious homes where encounters between people of different cultural identities intersect with Unitarian Universalism to create a fully inclusive community where, in the words of a vision statement adopted by the Unitarian Universalist Association's (UUA) Leadership Council, “all people are welcomed as blessings and the human family lives whole and reconciled.”

Multiculturalism means that one cultural identity does not dominate all other identities; that people are able to participate in their faith community without denying or hiding their cultural identities, that the role of cultural identity is part of pastoral and prophetic ministry; and that leaders have the competency to understand how their multiple identities and socialization influence their values, attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and interactions with others.

Multiculturalism means:
We welcome each other into shared community just as we are;
We welcome the many ways that people define, express, and experience the Holy and respect what is considered sacred in our diverse cultures;
We understand public witness and all social justice work as ministry in partnership with communities to make the world more compassionate, equitable and just—a place that is safe, nurturing, supportive, and fair for all people;
We support communities and individuals in their search for truth and meaning—and a sense of aliveness—in their quest to make a positive difference in the world;
We offer mutual aid and comfort through life’s challenges in ways that meet everyone’s cultural, as well as personal, needs;
We recognize that there are many cultural languages (words, symbols, acts) that manifest in worship, fellowship, pastoral care, etc.

Furthermore, the ill feeling toward Chechens and Caucasians has been fueled by a series of terrorist attacks and the Chechen wars. * Especially in a big cities f.e. in a London, New York, Paris people from different countries come to work and live. * They work together with people of different nationalities and their children go to same school and grow up together.

* In New York nationalities stay in their own area. F. e. the Russians in the Russian section, the Germans in the German section. The area where the many Chinese people live is called as Chinatown. We can find a Chinatown in almost every big city in a world.

1. Cultures of different nationalities * People of different nationalities have different cultures. * It is always better for the country to have people of different nationalities because the cultural background of the country is more attractive to other people. * It also helps to promote the country in the world. 2. Governments help to immigrants * The government is also trying to help refugees (utečenci) and the immigrants to integrate into society. 3. Multicultural tolerance * To have a multicultural society is very good because it gives people different experiences, ideas and helps them to learn to be more tolerant to other races. * It is very dangerous if there is intolerance between groups of people of different races. * There are good examples of nationalities living together in Europe, in America, in Australia and in many other countries. * These countries support the idea of understanding, tolerating, excepting and sharing different cultures and this way create a better future for our children.
Because it really is relevant. Relations between different ethnic groups, between those who come to work in Europe and the local residents have deteriorated in almost every European country. These problems also exist in the Russian Federation. That is why I thought it was appropriate to raise this issue in the expert community and among professional politicians.

A great deal has been said and written on this subject over the past few months. Most European politicians have started talking about the crisis of multiculturalism, saying that the values of multiculturalism have not withstood the test of time and should be revised. Our attitude to this issue is complex. Of course, a great deal depends on how one understands the term multiculturalism, but ethnically Russia is an extremely complex country, a melting pot of numerous ethnic groups and religions. For us coexistence of different peoples is a matter that is not related to foreign immigrants, who one way or another appear in every country, including Russia. It is a question of internal harmony, which was created over the centuries and which, as we thought in a certain period, we were able to take to a completely new level.

Let me remind you that there was a phrase in the Soviet times: a single community, the Soviet people. In many ways, these principles were purely theoretical but that does not mean we should abandon this issue and this idea. We really need to create a society built on internal harmony, where people are tolerant of each other and at the same time respectful of the traditions that make up the core of an ethnic group. Regardless of which part of the country we are talking about, be it Central Russia, the Caucasus or the Far East, there are Russian citizens living in all of those areas, who have the same rights and responsibilities, and who must follow certain social rules. That is why this topic is vitally important for us.

Europe also has a lot of problems, as I said, and I believe that an exchange of theoretical approaches and practical measures can be very valuable today.
"To me multicultural means diversity, it means difference, it means appreciating difference, being interested in things that are different, it means learning about differences, expanding your knowledge about the world, and learning from other cultures, enabling you to become a broader person. So I actually see multicultural and diversity as being a very positive contributor to who I am and what is important in my life. Adventure with knowledge, that empowering knowledge that really makes you understand humanity better."

There are many definitions of multiculturalism. The Oxford English Dictionary offers a broad definition of multiculturalism as the "characteristics of a multicultural society" and "the policy or process whereby the distinctive identities of the cultural groups within such a society are maintained or supported".

Multiculturalism is sometimes taken to mean that different cultural communities should live their own ways of life in a self-contained manner. This is not its only meaning and in fact it has long been obsolete. Multiculturalism basically means that no culture is perfect or represents the best life and that it can therefore benefit from a critical dialogue with other cultures. In this sense multiculturalism requires that all cultures should be open, self-critical, and interactive in their relations with other each other. This was the basic message of my report on multi-ethnic Britain (The Future of Multi Ethnic Britain, Runnymede Trust 2000). As we argued in the report, Britain is and should remain a vibrant and democratic multicultural society that must combine respect for diversity with shared common values.

There are 2 ways in which people interpret multiculturalism.
The first one is the more common way and that is every culture has the right to exist and there is no over-arching thread that holds them together. That is the multiculturalism we think is so destructive because there's no thread to hold society together. It is that multiculturalism that Trevor Phillips has condemned and, of course, we are totally supportive. There is another way to define multiculturalism which I would call diversity where people have their own cultural beliefs and they happily coexist - but there is a common thread of Britishness or whatever you want to call it to hold society together. And that is clearly what I would support because you do accept that people have different cultures and you accept them. It a positive acceptance not a negative tolerance.

In countries like Canada and Australia, multiculturalism consists of four broad meanings. First it is a descriptive term which suggests that the country is composed of numerous cultural groups thus making it a polytechnic society.
Secondly, it is and ideology based on perception about the way the society should be organized. This implies an acceptance that migrants will want to maintain their language and cultural traditions and that it will continue across several generations.
Thirdly, multiculturalism suggests a principle for social policies which assumes government responsibilities for removing structural advantages and implementing policies which ensure equality and access.
Fourthly, it means a set of special institutions which are designed to implement principle of participation, access and equity. In short, the policy is based on the premise that the support of the cultural identities of diverse ethnic groups within, accompanied by exchange and interaction among them, will facilitate the integration of society as a whole.

‘For Russia – with its wide range of languages, traditions, ethnicities and cultures – the national question is, without exaggeration, of fundamental value,’
Multiculturalism leads to the formation of ‘closed national and religious communities…which not only refuse to assimilate, but do not even adapt’. It leads to xenophobia on the part of the indigenous population, which seeks to ‘protect its interests, jobs and social benefits from the foreign competitors’.
Russia is different. It is ‘not an ethnic state or an American melting pot where everyone is, one way or another, an immigrant’. Russia is a multi-ethnic state ‘with an ongoing process of mutual adjustment, mutual understanding and unification of people through families, friendship and work’. Russian society is not well disposed towards immigrants. 11% of survey respondents say they would happily take part in a protest against immigrants similar to the infamous Manezh Square riot of December 2010
Racism and xenophobia emerge in the views of Russians more strongly when they are confronted by specific issues, as opposed to the issue of immigration generally. For example, they overwhelmingly disapprove of marriage between Russians and those they consider to be of a different race. The 2010 VTsIOM survey showed that the highest rates of disapproval were reserved for the hypothetical possibility of marriages with Chechens (65%, 2002: 67%); Arabs (63%, 2002: no figures); Kazakh, Kyrgyz or Uzbek (60%, 2002: 57%); Georgian, Armenian or Azeri (54%, 2002: 58%); Jews (46%, same in 2002).

What is multiculturalism or multicultural society? Well, there are at least seven different uses of the terms in Europe:
(1) First, "multiculturalism" or "multicultural society" are used as indicators of social change, referring to the changing ethnic composition of the population; an allegedly rather homogeneous population has become more heterogeneous. In this sense, "multicultural society" is a descriptive category.

(2) Secondly, the terms are used in what might be called a normative-cognitive way. This use could be circumscribed as follows: we should recognize the fact that we have become a country of immigration, that we need immigration, at present and in the future, and should accept the social and cultural consequences.

(3) A third use describes both an attitude and a norm: multiculturalism as tolerance toward others; as friendly and supportive behavior toward immigrants; as a liberal and democratic attitude which is based (among other things) on learning from the errors and fatal consequences of nationalism, chauvinism, and ethnic intolerance.

(4) Fourthly, multiculturalism is an interpretation of the concept of culture: there are no "pure," original cultures. Each culture has incorporated elements of other cultures; cultures are the result of interaction with one another; culture is continuous process and change. In this sense, the cultures of immigrants are seen as opportunities for the enrichment of one's own culture.

(5) Fifth, on a more superficial level, multiculturalism is an attitude that looks upon some aspects of the immigrants' culture (folklore, food, for example) and sees these as possible enrichment of "our" culture. Very often, in a socio-romantic view, the immigrants are viewed as people with qualities that "we have lost" (emotions, stable social relations, spontaneity, etc.); we could learn from them.

(6) Multiculturalism as a political-constitutional principle is a sixth meaning in the discussion, referring to ethnic identities as a major basis for political and state organization, for the distribution of rights and resources; it means the reenforcing of ethnic pluralism, ethnic autonomy, and speaks out against acculturation or assimilation, against one "state language."

(7) A seventh, different meaning: as a critical category, multiculturalism is regarded as a wellintended, but illusory concept which overlooks the necessity for a common culture, language, and identification to enable societal and state integration and stability. The unifying and homogenizing effects of the nation-state are looked upon as an achievement that should not be easily given up.

A concept with such a multitude of meanings hinders a rational discourse instead of helping to clarify it; "multiculturalism" and "multicultural society" are concepts which blur the core questions:

Five Positive Reasons Why Multiculturalism Should Be Supported

Different cultures have different ideas and characteristics. Merging these ideas can lead to a synergy that forwards human progress.
The developed countries have got where they are by exploiting weaker less organised countries. They should give something back to human society, by giving people from less economically fortunate cultures a chance to build a life in a more prosperous place.
Immigrants benefit society by bringing in new skills, and by being willing to do low level jobs that many locals are unwilling to perform.
A cultural mix makes society more interesting and everyone can benefit. For example, people can eat delicious curries all over the UK, and without multiculturalism this would not be possible.
A diverse mixture of races improve a nation's pool of sporting athletes, and success in international competitions leads to national pride. Some races possess physical traits that make them more suitable for certain sports, so countries with a diverse racial mix will have an advantage in sporting competitions.

Five Reasons Why We Shouldn't Have Multiculturalism.
Immigrants take away the jobs of local people, or undercut prices and therefore make it harder for locals to make a living.
Immigrants come here to claim benefits that should only be the rights of the local populace.
Immigrants do not try to integrate into local communities, and can make locals feel like foreigners.
People from ethnic minorities tend to commit more crimes.
Foreign workers only take from their host countries. They earn money, only spend enough to subsist, and send all their savings home. They therefore do not spend enough to benefit the local economy.

Benefits of Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism refers to the principle that several cultures can coexist equitably and peacefully in one country, instead of a single national culture. Canada is a great example of a country that is fully following the Multiculturalism Policy. The following are benefits of multiculturalism.

1. Increases immigration

Due to the multiculturalism policy in Canada, many immigrants have moved to that country. This is because they get to retain their ancestry and cultural values while concurrently feeling at home in Canada. The culture in Canada is basically a huge mosaic of all the various cultures present in Canada. This increases unity and makes the country more cohesive and hospitable, thus encouraging immigration.

2. New ideas

With the fusion of several cultures in America, the citizens now have better ideas and they also benefit from them. For instance, there are several kinds of food available due to multiculturalism like Chinese food and tacos. Moreover, there are different sports that other cultures brought from their countries. Soccer originated from Europe, with hockey coming from Canada.

3. Enhances national unity

Cultural conflicts and hate usually cause a divide within a nation. However, cooperation, inclusion and respect assist in uniting a country. Multiculturalism therefore strengthens a country, especially if there are programs that work towards promoting cultural understanding and eliminating racism. It also encourages all people to take part in the economic, political and social life of the society.

4. Boosts creativity

If a country does not appreciate multiculturalism, then it is likely that the citizens would be alike with regards to beliefs and also actions. In addition, creativity would also be limited while the society would probably be boring. Nevertheless, having a diverse mixture of cultures and people inspires people to think differently and thus enhance their creativity.

Multiculturalism has its demerits as well, such as the fact that believing in your ancestral traditions and values when you reside in a nation that has different ideals may cause conflict sometimes.

These are quite general, and offer some brief ideas

Advantages:

Brings in new ideas and opens up the world

Larger variety of reastaurants with different foods

Opportunity to learn about other cultures and countries, and try their nice food :)

Grow as a person as you meet different people with different views, and learn to respect others and be open-minded.

Less boring with a nice mix of people

To be honest, Canada's population is ultimately multicultural, in the sense that most Canadians have European ancestry and are not in fact native Americans, when cut comes to chase.

Learn to be tolerant of others

See world from other perspectives and points of view

Growing up in a multicultural society helps erase negative stereotypes, because ppl come to the realisation that ppl are different within the same culture. So there are some bad ppl from one's own culture, and another's, but there are also some really good ppl in one's own culture and anothers.

Disadvantages

Sometimes some groups can form their own groups and become isolated from society

Sometimes and unfortunately, racism occurs

A multicultural society is one in which different cultures exist alongside each other, often intermingling and incorporating a variety of aspects that define other cultures. Out of this cultural-blending comes a greater respect for each other's culture, tolerance and a far more interesting and diverse society. In a multicultural society, individuals are able to practice whatever religion they choose, to wear what they want, to eat what they want and engage in cultural practices that may not be fully understood by mainstream society.

In a multicultural society, immigrants have obviously played a significant role in shaping the cultural landscape, having brought with them their own beliefs and attitudes that shape their perception of their adopted nation. These individuals then pass their experiences and beliefs on to their children, encouraging them to follow various cultural practices which may differ from those practised by wider society. The children of immigrants grow up in a society where they learn about the world their parents came from and about the society they call home at school and from their friends.

This clearly makes for a more tolerant and open-minded society. Multi-culturalism enables different beliefs and value systems to co-exist, which means that positive aspects of one culture may be adopted by others to create a better society. In a globalised world, there is no place for isolation and discrimination, since to get ahead in life, individuals have to recognise both the similarities and differences that exist between various peoples. Multi-culturalism makes a society more open to change, as its social make-up is often in flux, as individuals move between societies.

As a consequence, individuals bring with them different experiences that can profoundly shape the society in which they have settled. A society's culture obviously reflects the experiences of its inhabitants, which is demonstrated throughout the literary world, in television, films and music. Individuals are exposed to a wide variety of cultures that often come together in a positive way, with multiculturalism often celebrated by liberal society. Youngsters grow up accepting that diversity is normal, that everyone is entitled to live life the way they want and that, at the end of the day, despite what clothes people wear and language they speak, people are all the same underneath.

There will always be those who maintain that multiculturalism has taken away a particular national identity, but national identities are never fixed and everyone has their own interpretation of what it means to belong to their nation. Some people may want to go back to a golden age, a time when society was more homogeneous and cohesive. There was no such age, though, as there has always been some degree of intermingling of cultures, even if it was less widespread. It is impossible to go backwards, anyway, and globalisation means that it is clearly better for individuals to be familiar with different cultures.

The advantages of multiculturalism..(another writing's work.. sorry for any error that I'd did) If you’re not lazy, you’re not Malay, If you don’t cheat, you’re not Chinese, If you don’t drink, you’re not Indian. Quoted from a book entitled ‘Honk! If you are Malaysian’ by Lydia Teh had clearly reflect on the racial stereotypes of some or most citizen in Malaysia, an example of multiracial country. These lopsided viewers of different races and cultures were not just existed in this country but also in other different multiracial country. Why should this non-relevant issue raised instead of being grateful with peculiarities of many cultural practice shared and gained as a multiracial country? Due to these, nurturing multiculturalism spirit is vital as it give many advantages to multiracial country. Multiculturalism is defined as the acceptance or promotion of multiple ethnicity culture applied and being together in the same society. It helps people that come from different background to learn and understand more about others social background. This will help to avoid misunderstanding and racial prejudices among citizen which can cause riot and lead to a political instability. Besides, we should not feel threatened with other culture and religious. It is really not a big deal at all, instead, the citizen will become more aware and appreciate their own culture and religious to assure the continuity of their culture and learn deeper about their religious so that the next generation knows better about it. As quoted by a French social philosopher, Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1889), ‘Though is very important for man as an individual that his religion should be true, that is not the case for society. Society has nothing to fear or hope from another life, what is most important for it is not that all citizen profess the true religion but that they should profess religion’. Furthermore, multiculturalism is also an effort in recognizing cultural diversity and promoting the equality of all cultural and tradition which will give great absurdities of multicultural country’s lifestyle. The problem of ethnocentric can be overcome and people will find it easier work hand in hand when doing things that required commitment and corporation among them which comes from different culture. Through this, unity bonding will become stronger as there is more cultural relativism between the people in the country. In addition, people that instill multiculturalism within themselves are less likely to suffer from culture shock when go abroad or enter a new society as they are easier to accept new culture and adapt themselves in a new place. Apart from these, it can become the asset of tourism. Varieties of culture that practices in the country can attract people from around the world to know more about this and visit the multicultural country to experience and watch the uniqueness of varies culture there. This will help the country to be better known in worldwide, and help in increasing the country’s income. As stated in the TravelDailyNews.com in the article entitled ‘A New Model For European Tourism Is Needed’, ‘The necessity for European Union (EU) to develop a new tourism model based on European multicultural principle and values was highlighted by the Vice President of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), Mrs. Irini Pari at her key-note speech during the luncheon of the conference. In conclusion, multiculturalism should be highly considered and instill in all of us especially when living in a multiracial country. As the saying goes, ‘there is no peace without unity’, through this, prosperous and peaceful country will be gained and no more pain and problem of culture rivalry among the citizen of multiracial country.

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    there is a growing awareness of the changing multicultural basis of the Mauritian society and of a more holistic and non-eurocentric counselling approaches need to be adopted by practitioners. While there is “increased attention to diversity and multiculturalism in the counselling profession” (Walden, Herlihy & Ashton, 2003, p. 109), there is still much to be done to move counselling towards a “post-colonial” approach. In other words, moving the counselling profession towards more openness to diversity…

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