Multi store model of memory
The idea of a multi store memory was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968 and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; (commonly referred to as stores) sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory.
Information from the environment first enters the sensory memory also known as (sensory store) encoded through one of the five senses depending on the type of information. It remains in the sensory memory for duration of 2 seconds before it decays and is replaced with new information. However if information in the sensory store is attended to, it can be passed to the short term store. According to Milner (1956) around 7 plus or minus 2 items can be stored in the short term store, Milner’s magic number provides evidence for the capacity of short term memory, as most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short term memory. Information in the short term memory is encoded primarily in a phonological format (by its sound) and can last up to 18 seconds without rehearsal according to Peterson and Peterson. Where the information is rehearsed it can remain there for as long as it is being rehearsed, but it will stop any new information entering the store. Transfer from the short term store to the long term store is achieved by a process called elaborative rehearsal. New information that enters the short term store displaces (pushes out) any information that is already there, meaning that information that is not rehearsed and passed to the long term store is forgotten. When information enters the long term store (also known as long term memory) it remains there for up to a life time (Bahrick et al, 1975). The capacity of the store is potentially unlimited, and encoding is primarily in a semantic format (information is stored by its meaning). The multi-store model has made an important contribution to memory research. The information-processing approach has enabled psychologists to...
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