The role of this work is to show how the power relations brought by the globalization, influence the (re) construction of a cultural identity emphasized by the homogenization of the nations. It will be used some contemporary authors that deal with the cultural aspects that are shared in order to be placed inside of a homogeneous and idealized culture. The focus, supported also by the cultural studies, is the accurate scenario of the countries’ cultural elements that were developed through the history and changed into sings of the globalized world. KEY WORDS: globalization, construction, culture, identity, homogenization.
The globalization brought changes in the cultural relations that exist among countries. Thus, these relations have been denominating through the cultural power that also exist in this kind of “discourse”. Nowadays what specifies what a country is, it’s how it deals with the so called superiority of the first world countries, those that control and keep their “partners” underneath the cultural power games like they were puppets of the post colonial system. That’s what we’re all living, a new type of cultural colonialism, played by multifaceted cultural identities that relation themselves with their new metropolis. It has been already mentioned that we’re dealing with a certain kind of “discourse”, and how it works is the focus of our attention. The Cultural Studies are used as the background of how a critical (theory) point of view of the contemporary world “works” in the changes brought by the globalization. For the sake of the modernity and progress, the top layer of the society dictates the rules of how belonging and being part of this group: you partially lose and change what you are, and become what they want you to be. According to Stuart Hall
“There are at least two different ways of thinking about 'cultural identity'. The first position defines 'cultural identity' in terms of one, shared culture, a sort of collective 'one true self' […]”and the “second position recognises that, as well as the many points of similarity, there are also critical points of deep and significant difference which constitute 'what we really are'; or rather - since history has intervened - 'what we have become' […]” (HALL, 2004, p. 223-225).
The new version of the imperialism in the beginning of the twenty-first century has an important role in the cultural transformation of the current societies. Also, a new version of “cultural revolution” has increased. The notion of culture has been modified through the years, and this re-evaluation of what culture really means in the modern time brings changes in the concept of having an identity that can tell who you are in your social/cultural life. The cultural studies are oriented by the hypothesis that among cultures there are power and domination relations that must be questioned. Such relations generate processes of cultural hybridization that leads to the construction of multiple identities. The first Stuart Hall’s position above is seen on how the culture has assumed an equal importance in the matters of the structure and organization of this post-modern identity. Having an identity is a way of belonging to some specific group. This sense of being part of a place that can be your own, with people sharing the same language, the same way of life, and sharing the “same” culture is part of the constructing of what is called “cultural identity”. You are what you wear, what you eat in the morning; how you brush your teeth and how you say “goodbye” tells a lot about what kind of cultural person you are in any society. These elements are all part of what Stuart Hall (2004) nominates as “cultural representation” that produces ideas and put everybody inside of an “utopian society” that are always led by countries that control the mass culture and shape them according to the “globalized standards”. A post-modern society constitutes “the process of cultural...
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HALL, Stuart. Cultural Identity and Diaspora: Identity: Community, Culture, Difference. Ed. Jonathan Rutherford. 1993.
GIUCCI, Guillermo. Uma carta: Nação Império. In: ROCHA, João Cezar Castro (Org.). Nenhum Brasil existe. Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 2003.
PEREIRA, Fernanda Alencar. O mundo desaba, uma leitura de Things Fall Apart de Chinua Achebe. USP, 2008.
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