Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on 25 December 1876 in Karachi. He was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.
He is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam and Baba-i-Qaum.
His birthday is observed as a national holiday.
Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947,
and as Pakistan's first Governor-General from independence
until his death.
Struggle for Separate State for Muslims
The Allahabad Address by Allama Iqbal at the 25th session of All India Muslim League on December 19, 1930 spelled out the “Concept of Pakistan”.Here Allama Iqbal boldly presented the idea of a “separate homeland” for Indian Muslims.
Jinnah, while admitting his efforts to foster Hindu-Muslim unity had fallen apart, remained fully sympathetic to serve the Indian Muslims. Allama Iqbal’s concept rapidly caught Jinnah’s attention.
He returned to India in 1934 buoyant with highest levels of confidence and started to collect the Indian Muslims under
the singular banner of All India Muslim League.
Jinnah and Allama Iqbal conferred regularly on strategic matters. Jinnah used Allama Iqbal’s concepts in his speeches.
Under Jinnah’s wise leadership, the Muslim League expressed reservations about the weak parliament. The Congress grabbed the opportunity and contested the 1937 provincial elections. Consequently the Muslim League failed to win any majority.
These events had a strong impact on Jinnah’s political perspectives. The British and Hindus had became power against the Muslims. The onus to rebuild Muslim majority came on the shoulders of Jinnah.
The course of the events altered, in favor of Indian Muslims, when World War II erupted in September 1939. With Congress
demanding the British to “Quit India”, Viceroy asked Jinnah for expression of Muslim League’s position on self-government, confident that it would differ greatly from that of the Congress.
Jinnah informed Viceroy that Muslim League would be demanding India’s partition instead of federation contemplated in 1935 Act. Lahore Resolution, also known as “Pakistan Resolution”, was a formal political statement adopted by the All India Muslim League on 23rd March 1940, which called for the creation of “independent state”’ for Muslims in British India.
Eventually,1940 Lahore Resolution picked up pace and became unified demand for a separate Muslim state, called Pakistan.
Jinnah declared Muslims would campaign on single issue: “Pakistan”. He traveled all over India and aggressively campaigned for Pakistan. His message to every one was loud and clear:
“Pakistan is a matter of life or death for us.”
“This was Jinnah’s glorious hour. His arduous political campaigns, his robust beliefs and claims, were at last justified.”
The 1945 election results appeared to prove the universal appeal of Pakistan among Muslims of the subcontinent.
These were testing times.Jinnah saw that indecisionand delays would only cause more bloodshed across Muslim-dominated areas.
On 7 August Jinnah, with his sister Miss Fatima Jinnah and close aides, flew from Delhi to Karachi and on August 11 presided
over the new constituent assembly for Pakistan.
Jinnah addressed nation: “You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan.
You may belong to any religion or caste or creed.
This has nothing to do with the business of the State.”
On August 14, 1947,“Islamic Republic of Pakistan”came into existence, 0.first country in the world to be founded on the basis of Islamic Ideology.
As Pakistan’s first head of state, Quaid-e-Azam led by example. He worked day and night to formulate policies and consolidate the entire fabric of the new Islamic Republic. During his tenure, the founder of Pakistan proudly...
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