Mr pang

Topics: Alcohol, National Institutes of Health, Cancer research Pages: 16 (1604 words) Published: November 1, 2014
Alcohol and Cancer

Samir Zakhari    Vasilis Vasiliou    Q. Max Guo


Alcohol and Cancer

Samir Zakhari, Ph.D.
Division of Metabolism and Health Effects
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse
and Alcoholism
National Institutes of Health
5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2031
Bethesda, MD 20892-9304

Vasilis Vasiliou, Ph.D.
Professor and Director of Toxicology
Graduate Program
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Colorado Denver
C238-P15 RC2, Room P15-3111
12700 East 19th Avenue
Aurora, CO 80045

Q. Max Guo, Ph.D.
Division of Metabolism and Health Effects
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and
National Institutes of Health
5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2031
Bethesda, MD 20892-9304

ISBN 978-1-4614-0039-4
e-ISBN 978-1-4614-0040-0
DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0040-0
Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011934679
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011
All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights.

Printed on acid-free paper
Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (


Chronic alcohol consumption is a major health problem worldwide, and may lead to addiction and damage of almost every organ of the body. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Burden of Disease has concluded that approximately 1.8 million people die each year due to alcohol (3.2% of all deaths). One of the most significant diseases caused by chronic alcohol consumption is cancer. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France, alcohol is considered a carcinogen for the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and the female breast. Worldwide, a total of approximately 389,000 cases of these cancers representing 3.6% of all cancers (5.2% in men and 1.7% in women) are derived from chronic alcohol ingestion.

The fact that alcohol causes cancer is not new. The first observation that alcohol is responsible for esophageal cancer was published by the French pathologist Lamu in Paris in 1910. It took a long time until 1978 when the National Institute of Health (NIH) organized a workshop on this topic due to the fact that more and more epidemiologic data appeared demonstrating the causal relationship between alcohol and certain types of cancer. However, at this time mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis were almost completely unknown.

A second workshop in 2004 took into account the increasing literature on possible mechanisms by which ethanol and/or its first metabolite acetaldehyde stimulates carcinogenesis. The results of this workshop were published in ALCOHOL. A further step forward in bringing this important issue to the scientific public was the workshop held in Lyon at the IARC in February 2007 which ended in a clear statement that alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic and that acetaldehyde is a causal factor in esophageal carcinogenesis published in the April issue 2007 of LANCET ONCOLOGY.

Considering this historic development, it was time for a more detailed look at the effect of alcohol on carcinogenesis in a broader perspective, including epidemiology, biochemistry as...
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