Mr. Kenneth Ndulute

Topics: Scientific method, Self-efficacy, Science Pages: 33 (9430 words) Published: November 4, 2012

A case of Morogoro Biology teachers





1.1: Background to the Problem3
1.2. Science Process Skills in the 2005 Competence Based Curriculum (CBC)5 1.3: Problem Statement6
1.4.1: General Objective of the Study7
1.4.2: Specific Objectives of the Study7
1.5: Research Questions & Hypotheses7
1.5.1: Research Questions7
1.5.2: Research Hypotheses8
1.6: Theoretical Framework8
1.7: Significance of the Study10


2.1.The History of Science Process Skills in the Tanzanian Educational Curriculum11 2.2. Teaching of Science Process Skills in Tanzania12
2.3. Measurements of Science Process Skills13
2.4: Description of Individual Integrated Science Process Skills15 2.4.1: Hypothesis Formulation15
2.4.2: Identifying and Controlling Variables16
2.4.3: Defining Operationally16
2.4.4: Formulation of Models and Graphs16
2.4.5: Interpreting Data17
2.4.6: Experimenting17
2.5. General Importance of Science Process Skills18
2.6. Teacher Beliefs (Self efficacy) in Teaching Science18 2.7. Literature Gap19


3.1. Research Design20
3.2. Data Collection Methods21
3.3. Data Analysis Plan22



1.1: Background to the Problem

During the 1960s and 70s, science curriculum innovations and reforms were characterized by attempts to incorporate more inquiry oriented and investigative activities into science classes (Mungandi, 2005; Dillashaw and Okey, 1980). As a result, science curricula started to emphasize the acquisition of science process skills as one of the major goals of science instruction (Padilla, 1990). The intention was to expose students into the world of science especially the world of research and investigation so that as future scientists, they acquire scientific investigation skills (Padilla, 1990).

In Tanzania for example, the emphasis and the incorporation of science process skills in the education curriculum dates back to 1967 with the announcement of Education for Self Reliance (ESR) policy (Osaki, 2007). The policy according to Ishumi & Nyirenda (2004) placed much emphasis on merging theory and practice, critical thinking and experimentation. As a result, in 1968 the school science project (SSP) which was an inquiry and activity based curriculum was adopted from Nuffield science materials (Osaki, 2007). The curriculum and its material covered Physics, Chemistry, and Biology subjects and it placed much emphasis on the need for learners to acquire science process skills such as skills in experimenting. Science process skills have also been articulated in the newly introduced Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) of 2005 as one of the basic competences to be acquired by science learners in secondary schools (URT, 2005).

It has to be noted that, science process skills are activities that scientists execute when they study or investigate a problem, an issue or a question. Chiappetta and Koballa (2002) define science process skills as a set of broadly transferable abilities appropriate to many science disciplines and reflective of the behaviour of scientists. They are hierarchically organized, ranging from the simplest to the more complex higher order ones, called integrated science process skills (Padilla, 1990; Dyer, Myers &Washburn, 2004). Integrated science process skills include skills in formulating hypotheses, identifying and controlling variables, defining operationally, experimenting, and interpreting data (Chiappetta and Koballa, 2002; Hamilton & Swortzel, 2007). Basic...

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