TITLE: COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM AND THE CAPACITY OF TANZANIA SCIENCE TEACHERS FOR TEACHING SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS
A case of Morogoro Biology teachers
POSITION: ASSISTANT LECTURER, THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE (SUA) MOROGORO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1: Background to the Problem
1.2. Science Process Skills in the 2005 Competence Based Curriculum (CBC)
5 1.3: Problem Statement
1.4.1: General Objective of the Study
1.4.2: Specific Objectives of the Study
1.5: Research Questions & Hypotheses
1.5.1: Research Questions
1.5.2: Research Hypotheses
1.6: Theoretical Framework
1.7: Significance of the Study
2.1.The History of Science Process Skills in the Tanzanian Educational Curriculum
11 2.2. Teaching of Science Process Skills in Tanzania
2.3. Measurements of Science Process Skills
2.4: Description of Individual Integrated Science Process Skills
15 2.4.1: Hypothesis Formulation
2.4.2: Identifying and Controlling Variables
2.4.3: Defining Operationally
2.4.4: Formulation of Models and Graphs
2.4.5: Interpreting Data
2.5. General Importance of Science Process Skills
2.6. Teacher Beliefs (Self efficacy) in Teaching Science
18 2.7. Literature Gap
3.1. Research Design
3.2. Data Collection Methods
3.3. Data Analysis Plan
1.1: Background to the Problem
During the 1960s and 70s, science curriculum innovations and reforms were characterized by attempts to incorporate more inquiry oriented and investigative activities into science classes (Mungandi, 2005; Dillashaw and Okey, 1980). As a result, science curricula started to emphasize the acquisition of science process skills as one of the major goals of science instruction (Padilla, 1990). The intention was to expose students into the world of science especially the world of research and investigation so that as future scientists, they acquire scientific investigation skills (Padilla, 1990).
In Tanzania for example, the emphasis and the incorporation of science process skills in the education curriculum dates back to 1967 with the announcement of Education for Self Reliance (ESR) policy (Osaki, 2007). The policy according to Ishumi & Nyirenda (2004) placed much emphasis on merging theory and practice, critical thinking and experimentation. As a result, in 1968 the school science project (SSP) which was an inquiry and activity based curriculum was adopted from Nuffield science materials (Osaki, 2007). The curriculum and its material covered Physics, Chemistry, and Biology subjects and it placed much emphasis on the need for learners to acquire science process skills such as skills in experimenting. Science process skills have also been articulated in the newly introduced Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) of 2005 as one of the basic competences to be acquired by science learners in secondary schools (URT, 2005).
It has to be noted that, science process skills are activities that scientists execute when they study or investigate a problem, an issue or a question. Chiappetta and Koballa (2002) define science process skills as a set of broadly transferable abilities appropriate to many science disciplines and reflective of the behaviour of scientists. They are hierarchically organized, ranging from the simplest to the more complex higher order ones, called integrated science process skills (Padilla, 1990; Dyer, Myers &Washburn, 2004). Integrated science process skills include skills in formulating hypotheses, identifying and controlling variables, defining operationally, experimenting, and interpreting data (Chiappetta and Koballa, 2002; Hamilton & Swortzel, 2007). Basic...
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