The description of jails place in correction and its role throughout history Jails were initiated before any other component within the correctional system such as prisons, probation, or halfway houses. These institutions are considered the front line of the correctional system because nearly every offender starts their journey through the system here. King Henry II ordered the first jail or gaols as they were known then, to be built in 1166. The purpose of these jails was to house displaced persons, the mentally ill, and the poor. The conditions within the jail were horrid, they were filled with violence, lack of sanitation, poor food, and lack of discipline. In 1773 John Howard, sheriff of Bedfordshire, was disgusted by these conditions and began inspecting other European jails to replicate a model for the operations for the jails in England. He began to work with members of the English House of Commons to create requirements (standards of operations) for English jails and prisons and the outcome was the Penitentiary Act of 1779. This Act stated jails must meet certain requirements such as (1) secure and sanitary structures (2) systematic inspections. (3) abolition of fees charged to inmates , and (4) a reformatory regime in which inmates were confined in solitary cells but worked in common rooms during the day ( Corrections: An Introduction 3e ) the U.S. colonies adopted to English model of a jail and began housing inmates, awaiting trial. The walnut street jail was the first prison in America functioned to confine sentenced criminals in 1790.establishing the foundation for current jail operations. Today jails are locally operated correctional facilities that confine persons before or after adjudication (Corrections: An Introduction 3e ). Theses front line institutions serve multiple functions for a vest amount of inmates. Individual who have been arrested, are detained pending trial, juveniles pending transfer to state , or federal facilities, and even...
References: Seiter, R. D. (2011) Corrections an Introduction, 3e.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson
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