Movers and Shakers in Education
There are many significant events and people that helped shape the educational system in America. The four that I have chosen to do my review on are “Engel vs Vitale (1962)”, “Creation of the State Board Of Education – Horace Mann (1837)”, “Lau vs Nichols (1974)”, “I.D.E.A. (1990)” and “Socrates: Socratic Method (470-399 B.C.)”. Even though the four choices I have made are just a few out of many, I feel that their efforts laid grounds for further changes to come in the history of education. “Engel vs Vitale (1962)”
In the case of Engel vs Vitale, the case was trying to put into question “whether or not the Regents of New York violated the religious freedom of the students by providing time during the school day for this particular prayer” (Pearson, 2005). “Did the established Clause of the 1st Amendment prevent schools from engaging in ‘religious activity”? “The argument for the parents was that the separation of church and state requires that the government stay out of the business of prescribing religious activities of any kind”. “The Regents of New York argued that they did not establish a religion by providing a prayer for those who wanted to say it.” The Supreme Court found that the Regents prayer was unconstitutional and in violation of the First Amendment (Pearson, 2005). “Creation of the State Board Of Education – Horace Mann (1837)” .
Horace Mann was a lawyer in Massachusetts in 1823 and became secretary of the state board of education in 1837, when schools were run by a state system (Litz, 1975). Mann believed that teaching standards were in need of improvement and that teachers were in need of better pay. He brought the conditions of the school into the attention of the public and encouraged discussions on ways to improve them. Horace Mann was the reason the school conditions improved and were better equipped. He was also successful in helping teacher get better training through institutes and raising the standards for schools and colleges. Many have referred to him as being known as “The Father of Education”. His belief was that all children should be provided with a good education by the state for which they live (Litz, 1975). I.D.E.A (1990)
The I.D.E.A. program was designed to meet the needs of special education without any cost to the parents and to help meet the needs of children with special disabilities (STEINBERG, 2013). . The program was started in 1975 and was known as the “Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHCA)”, but was renamed I.D.E.A. in 1991. This program helps students that are in need of special instructions. Schools are able to meet the needs of special needs students through this program and meet the needs of students that are struggling in regular classes. Many students have shown growth in the special education programs. “The safeguards, set forth in § 1415 of the IDEA, protect the rights of children with disabilities to a "free appropriate public education" (STEINBERG, 2013). “No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002)”
The no child left behind act was too modernize and reformed the ESEA act (Kennedy, 2005). This act was signed by President Bush in 2002. President Bush said “I am proud of all that we accomplished to write a strong, bipartisan promise into law to improve and strengthen public education for every child.” “Clearly, it is time to make that promise a reality and to chart a more effective course for realizing the goal of truly leaving no child behind.” The goal for this act was so that the learning curve among minorities could be reduced. The second reason is so that student would be at their grade level in reading and math before moving on to the next grade level. In order to accomplish these goals the school board had to find and hire qualified teachers that met the requirements for the program. “A new commitment was made to enhance the quality of state tests, align them to standards to measure what students know and can do, and include multiple measures to gain a more complete picture of student achievement”
The events and people that I have chosen for my assignment are important because they have transformed how education has changed throughout history. Even though these events took place many years ago, many of them are still in effect, and the school board and government keep amending them to accommodate the students of today and future generations to come. These events have helped transform teachers into successful students and teachers that have evolved in their learning abilities and teaching abilities.
Engel v. Vitale (1962). (2005). Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://www.infoplease.com/us/supreme-court/cases/ar10.html Foundations of American Education(6th ed.), Webb, Metha, & Jordan (2010). EDU Timeline
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Google Images, Engel vs Vitale, 1962, retrieved on May 29, 2013 http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=761&q=engel+vs+vitale&oq=Engle+vs&gs_l=img.1.0.0i10l2j0i10i24l6.2138.9350.0.1218.104.22.168.22.214.171.1240.1853. .Google Images, Creation of the State Board of Education – Horace Mann, 1837, retrieved on .
May 29, 2013
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=761&q=engel+vs+vitale&oq=Engle+vs&gs_l=img.1.0.0i10l2j0i10i24l6.2138.9350.0.12126.96.36.199.188.8.131.520 Horace Mann Biography - Birthday, Photos - Who2.com. (n.d.). Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://www.who2.com/bio/horace-mann
Horace Mann. (2013). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=39020185&site=ehost-live&scope=site i.d.e.a - Google Search. (n.d.). Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=761&q=i.d.e.a&oq=I.D.E&gs_l=img.1.0.0j0i24l9.2610.6398.0.128184.108.40.206.0.0.0.195.888.0j5.5.0...0.0.0..1ac.1.12.img.nMfPBeXY
Kennedy, E. M. (2005). The No Child Left Behind Act. Human Rights, 32(4), 16-18.