Motivation Theories

Powerful Essays
Topics: Motivation
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Management and Motivation
Nancy H. Shanks

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter the student will be able to:







Frame the context for understanding the concept of motivation, particularly who and what motivates employees;
Provide an overview of the different theories of motivation;
Identify extrinsic and intrinsic factors that impact motivation;
Assess misconceptions about motivation; and,
Suggest strategies to enhance employee motivation.

INTRODUCTION
Managers are continually challenged to motivate a workforce to do two things. The first challenge is to motivate employees to work toward helping the organization achieve its goals. The second is to motivate employees to work toward achieving their own personal goals.
Meeting the needs and achieving the goals of both the employer and the employee is often difficult for managers in all types of organizations. In health care, however, this is often more difficult, in part as a result of the complexity of healthcare organizations, but also as a function of the wide array of employees who are employed by or work collaboratively with
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M ANAGEMENT

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M OTIVATION

healthcare providers in delivering and paying for care. The types of workers run the gamut from highly trained and highly skilled technical and clinical staff members to relatively unskilled workers. To be successful, healthcare managers need to be able to manage and motivate this wide array of employees.

MOTIVATION—THE CONCEPT
According to Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary, a motive is “something
(a need or desire) that causes a person to act.” Motivate, in turn, means “to provide with a motive,” and motivation is



References: Adams, J. S. (1963, November). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422–436. Alderfer, C. P. (1972). Existence, relatedness and growth: human needs in organizational settings Atchison, T. A. (2003, May/June). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction. Buckingham, M. (2005, March). What great managers do. Harvard Business Review, 3(3), 70–79. Hallowell, E. M. (2005, January). Overloaded circuits: why smart people underperform. Harvard Business Review, 83, 54–62. Herzberg, F. (2003, January). One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 81, 86–96. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Manion, J. (2005). From management to leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Row. McClelland, D. C. (1985). Human motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Morse, G. (2003, January). Why we misread motives. Harvard Business Review, 81(1), 18. Nicholson, N. (2003, January). How to motivate your problem people. Harvard Business Review, 81(1), 57–65. Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory Z. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.

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