1. Intrinsic motivation
“Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation without any apparent external reward” ( Marsh (2004) pg 34)
2. Extrinsic motivation
In technical terms we can refer to reinforcement ,which is the external stimulus that follows as a result of a certain response.If it is a positive reinforcer then the stimulus or event results in improved learning.(Marsh (2004) pg 35)
3. Self Esteem
A number of educators assert that self-esteem is one of the most basic human needs and that it is a powerful factor in classroom behaviour. (Marsh,C.(2008)pg.36)
4. Achievement motivation
Classroom tasks offer students various opportunities for experiencing success or failure.(Givvin et al 2001)
5. Social motivation
Support from teachers id clearly a major management strategyit can be used to reinforce desired behaviour by the teacher as well as build self esteem and generally more positive relationships between the teacher and students in a class.(Marsh, colin (2008) pg.40)
6. Pastoral care
“Teachers and administrators tend to potray pastoral care in terms of altruistic commitment and include such elements such as :
Concern for the total welfare of the students
Schools providing a learning environment that is sensitive, warm and humane.
Creating feelings of belonging for students.
Enhancing the formation of positive relationship between the teacher and a student.”(Marsh (2004)pg 45)
Provide meaningful objectives, develop a sense of autonomy.(Whitton,D. (2004)pg 178)
Involve manipulation of objects, co-operative learning, group work and presentations, induce level of challenge or difficulty, project enthusiasm. (Whitton,D. (2004)pg 178)
Offer rewards as good incentives for good behaviour.Teach and model deep processing and meta cognitive strategies.(Whitton,D.(2004)pg 178)
References: Whitton,D., Sinclair,C., Barker,K., Nanlohy,P & Nosworthy,M .,(2004)Learning for teacing :teaching for learning.South Melbourne Thompson.
Marsh,C. (2008) Becoming a teacher (4th Ed.). Frenchs Forest: Pearson Education Australia
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