Essay Advanced Level Motivational Factors
In ESL Language Training
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the
Degree of PhD in International Business
Table of Contents
| Abstract and Introduction
| Andragogy and Self-Motivation
| Foreign Language Learners vs Second Language Learners
| The Attitude Motivation Test Battery
| Excerpts from Long Beach Community College Study
| Summary and Conclusions
Abstract and Introduction
In recent years, TESOL has called for the study of the social and cognitive factors that affect adult English learners’ participation in formal language learning. Numerous research projects have investigated the motivational influences and factors of adult immigrant English. In particular, factors and motivations which led them to take an advanced ESL courses after already having adequate fluency in English to conduct their work and daily lives. Using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, these studies have frequently uncovered that the ESL students opted to pursue advanced language training to, primarily, join the dominant language culture and community. Practical reasons, although very important to the learners, seem to be outweighed by the psychological drive to integrate into the culture. Social identity often proves to be the major factor in this process as student motivation often fostered by a self perceived difference between their current and desired identities as assimilated speakers of their new language. Fundamentally they saw language education as an essential transitional requisite for attainment of this preferred identity. Introduction
The study of TESOL, which can trace its roots applied linguistics, occasionally failed to think about many non-linguistic aspects and situations of use which can influence learning. A large part of this knowledge, though, collected through education and psychology investigations could be applied to the groups of people and areas of interest being considered in TESOL. In places such as California second-language English users make up 63% of the target adult learners and almost a third in the country overall (Lasater and Elliott, 2004). The literature studied below begins by recapping major endeavors of psychology and education investigation so as to establish a baseline of student’s imperatives to learn. The study later focuses on motivation studies in linguistics related to ESL attainment and advancement.
Andragogy and Self-Motivation
Review of the Literature Adult Learning from a Social Cognitive Perspective The foundation of adult learning theory was established in Lindeman (1926) who identified important distinctions between adult and child learning. These ideas were later developed by Knowles (1990) and constitute the hypothetical learning model dubbed andragogy. Andragogy, a mode of education starkly contrary pedagogy, which is characterized by children being instructed by adults in a directed and authoritarian environment. Knowles posited that because of significant psychological and physiological differences between youth and adult learners, the modes of educational motivation must be equally disparate. Knowles’s teachings are very well regarded in the education worldwide. Psychological metamorphosis in adult life, human factors brought to the learning situation, adult outside world demands, and life duties distinct from children’s, particularly a greater breadth of life encounters, varied incentives, and educational requirements all act in concert to create a distinctly different mode of motivation for adult learners. In particular, adult learning, per Knowles (1990), is predicated upon six vital components: 1. Justification for learning, that is, the rationale for desiring the education, before pursuing it. 2. Transformation of the adult concept of the self into that of an...
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