Motivation and leadership are very important components in social work management. Good managers should be aware not only of practical facets of that but also have a theoretical bases. That is why the work titled "Motivation and Leadership in Social Work Management" was written. The author of that composition is Elizabeth Fisher from Shippensburg Uniwersity in Pennsylvania. In that paper she is articulating some kinds of motivation or leadership theories and how they apply to social work.
First part of the lecture is dealing about motivation theories which are divided on: content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation. In the first group we can find Maslow's hierarchy of needs which one of the most popular theories in this area. In Maslow's opinion there are five levels od needs which are pshysiological (food, shelter), security (protection from loos of treats), social (affiliation and acceptance), ego (self-esteem, recognition) and self-actualization. He created a pyramid in which all that needs are cointaned. In that hierarchy pshysiological needs are on the bottom and self-actualization is lying on the highest level. Good manager should motivates workers by the need that corespond with the level that they are currently at. The point is that the need from lower level will be not motivating for them. For example if worker has good salary, house and a good car, pshysiological need will not attracted him unless his situation changes.
Another thesis regarding of motivation is Herzberg's Two Factors of Motivator-Hygiene Theory. The basic promise of this theory is that there are two types od needs that motivate workers, ie. hygiene and motivator. Hygiene factors are realated to the work environment and include things like salary, benefits, policies, working conditions and realtionship. They are really important to prevent job dissatisfaction by the worker. Motivator factors are focused on personal growth and self-actualization. They are the best for promoting achievements and satifaction with work. They include accomplishments, recognition and responsibility. In Herzberg opinion there is nothing better for workers to achieve satisfaction with work. From that theory were rised two types of management. Job enrichmen includes providing as many factors as possible. The second one is job enlargement which is necessary when job enrichment is impossible and provides employees with as much variety as possible.
The last one theory in content theories of motivation group is McClelland's Trichotomy of Needs. He claimed that people are motivated by three needs which are power, affiliation and achievement. Every of that needs have impact on worker but it depends on the personal character which need will have the strongly impact on employee. That is why the employer has to know which kind of need will be the most influencial for his worker and then try to provides a chance to fulfill this need. For example employee who are primarly motived by power will perform better when given opportunities for control and influence on others and often have outspoken personalities.
Now I want to describe two theses which are cointained in process theories of motiviaton begging from the Equity or Social Comprasion Theories of Motivation. We all know that workers are likely to look toward their peers to find out how they do their job. They want to compare each other and everybody wants to be the best. This comparing is the motivation factor. Really important is to practice open salary scales and performance structures which permit workers to compare and can be important in managing efectively. Social work menagers should be careful not to ignore the important influence od peers on employees performance. Weiner had an another point of view and he described different theory which is Goals and Objectives as Motivational Theory. He claimed that employees and organizations set goals that influence individual and organizational...
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