According to Greenberg (1999), motivation is defines “as a process of arousing, directing and maintaining behavior towards a goal.” Where “directing” refers to the selection of a particular behavior; and ‘maintenance” refers to the inclination to behave with consistency in that manner until the desired outcome is met. Motivation is the force that transforms and uplifts people to be productive and perform in their jobs. Maximizing employee’s motivation is a necessary and vital to successfully accomplish the organization’s targets and objectives. However, this is a considerable challenge to any organizations managers, due to the complexity of motivation and the fact that, there is no ready made solution or an answer to what motivates people to work well (Mullins,2002). Mullins (2002) also classifies motivation into Intrinsic and Extrinsic types. Intrinsic motivation involves psychological rewards to enhance job satisfaction, such as the opportunity to use one's ability, a sense of achievement, receiving appreciation and positive recognition or being treated in a considerate manner (Mullins, 2002:P490). Such methods ensure employees are constantly motivated while being engaged in activities that are enjoyable and rewarding.
The function of manager is to complete a task on time. The task or project may be very simple or vastly complex and technically challenging. Where, a manager must find ways to motivate the people working on the task. In order to understand how to motivate the people, a manager must also understand the difference between the management and the leadership. An understanding of the motivation methods, including the traditional theories from the early to mid 21st century to more modern theories of motivation, is crucial to meeting project. By motivating team members to be personally committed to the project success will create the best opportunity for achieving goals. In short, for a company to success, it is depends on how the manager’s ability to organize, coordinate, support a diverse team, working toward a common goal and last of all is to motivates the employees. One of the examples managers can use in motivation the team members is that a manager may say to the team members, if they complete the task successfully, he will promoted all of them. Where, by saying this, the manager has made the work more important to the team because the team could be promoted. Other example is that, in the grocery business, customers expect a certain level of friendliness and service from employees for a pleasant shopping experience. The unmotivated employees who don’t follow the store service procedures can contribute to an unsatisfactory trip to the grocery store. Where, this will leads to disgruntled customers who may choose to shop elsewhere.
There are two popular and well known theories that managers must understand too. They are, the well-known theories of motivation which known as “Maslow’s motivation theory” and “McGregor’s X-Y theory and also the Frederick Herzberg theory. Maslow is a humanistic psychologist, means that he don't believes in behaviors that modifies the way humans motivates, where he believes that all humans would strive for the higher ground, and that is the highest level that motivates people, and it's the never fulfilling thrust of achievement. And so, he constructed a pyramid of needs to explain the each level of the human needs which trigger the human motivation. The five needs that Maslow proposed is: physical survival needs (food, shelter, wages and sex),these needs are the strongest, because without these needs fulfill, they will try as hard as they can to fulfill them and will not be able to do anything else, Safety and security needs (insurance, security, protection from harm), Social needs (love, peer groups, affection, recreation, and acceptance) for example, an organization can help foster these needs by making the employees feel that their contributions are worthy and needed...
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