motivating

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation, Organizational studies and human resource management Pages: 47 (2669 words) Published: September 23, 2014
ninth edition

STEPHEN P. ROBBINS

Chapter

16
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.
All rights reserved.

MARY COULTER

Motivating
Employees

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
The University of West Alabama

LEARNING OUTLINE
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

What Is Motivation?
• Define motivation.
• Explain motivation as a need-satisfying process.

Early Theories of Motivation
• Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and how it can be used to motivate.
• Discuss how Theory X and Theory Y managers approach
motivation.
• Describe Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory.
• Explain Herzberg’s views of satisfaction and
dissatisfaction.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16–2

L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation
• Describe the three needs McClelland proposed as being
present in work settings.
• Explain how goal-setting and reinforcement theories
explain employee motivation.
• Describe the job characteristics model as a way to design motivating jobs.
• Discuss the motivation implications of equity theory.
• Contrast distributive justice and procedural justice.
• Explain the three key linkages in expectancy theory and
their role in motivation.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16–3

L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)
Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.

Current Issues in Motivation
• Describe the cross-cultural challenges of motivation.

• Discuss the challenges managers face in motivating
unique groups of workers.
• Describe open-book management, employee recognition,
pay-for-performance, and stock option programs.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16–4

What Is Motivation?
• Motivation
 Is the result of an interaction between the person and
a situation; it is not a personal trait.

 Is the process by which a person’s efforts are
energized, directed, and sustained towards attaining
a goal.


Energy: a measure of intensity or drive.



Direction: toward organizational goals



Persistence: exerting effort to achieve goals.

 Motivation works best when individual needs are
compatible with organizational goals.
© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16–5

The Motivation Process

Unsatisfied
Need

© Prentice Hall, 2002

Tension

Drives

Search
Behavior

Satisfied
Need

Reduction
of Tension

16-6

The Basic Motivational Model
1. Needs (deficiencies)

6. Needs reassessed
by the employee

2. Search for ways
to satisfy needs
The Employee

3. Goals directed
behaviors

5. Rewards or
punishments

4. performance

Early Theories of Motivation
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
 Needs were categorized as five levels of lower- to
higher-order needs.
Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can
satisfy higher order needs.
 Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
 Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy.


 Hierarchy of needs
Lower-order (external): physiological, safety
 Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization 

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16–8

Exhibit 16–1

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16–9

Description Five Basic Needs






Physiological needs:
- Required to sustain life
- chemical needs of the body hunger, thirst,
sleeplessness, sexual desire
Safety needs:
- security from threatening events or
surroundings
- living in safe environment, medical insurance,
job security, financial reserves
Social / affiliation needs:
- friendship, belonging to a group, giving and
receiving love

Description Five Basic Needs
Esteem needs:
falls into two categories:
i. Internal esteem needs:
-...
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