Motion study and work design
Motion study involves the analysis of the basic hand, arm, and body movements of workers as they perform work. Work design:
Work design involves the methods and motions used to perform a task. This design includes:
the workplace layout and environment
the tooling and equipment (e.g., work holders, fixtures, hand tools, portable power tools, and machine tools). Objective of Motion study and work design:
The objective towards accomplishing the motion study and work design are : Using the time and motion study ti identify problem in the production process.
Improving the work process in terms of production time ,number of process and production layout by proposing the new work process.
Benefits from the motion study and work design:
Eliminate the unnecessory
Knowing what is unnecessary is important as knowing what is the most important in production and operation. Basedon those, we can eliminate insignificant tasks and nonproductive activities. Preoccupation, layout of production,errors, too much motion and travel during performing the tasks are examples of nonproductive activities and it wastedthe production time. Change the sequence of operations
Changing the sequence of operations based on the process chart and flow diagram to affect a smooth flow of work through plant, which can reduce production time. Besides that, changing the sequence of operation also involvelayout of production, where it can reduce space utilization
Simplify the necessary operations
Simplify the necessary operations to make the job easier by analyzing the process in order to improve it throughelimination, combine or rearrange the sequence and layout of operations. By simplifying the operations, it can alsoeffect for the production time.
Techniques of Motion study:
Motion study has the greatest potential for savings. We can by eliminating the task or combining the task with some task. We can rearrange the elements of work to reduce the work content and we can simplify the operation by moving part. Thus, among the techniques for motion study are : Process charts
Flow process charts
Multiple activity chart
Gilbreths used flow diagrams to show movement of product around an entire plant because they gave an accurate geographical picture of the entire process. They also develop methods study techniques such as cyclograph,chronocyclo graphs, movie cameras, etc. Basic Motion Elements:
Any manual task is composed of work elements, and the work elements can be further subdivided into basic motion elements. We will define basic motion elements and how they can be used to analyze work.
Frank Gilbreth was the first to catalog (list) the basic motion elements.
Therbligs are the basic building blocks of virtually all manual work performed at a single workplace and consisting primarily of hand motions. – A list of Gilbreth’s 17 therbligs is presented along with the letter symbol used for each as well as a brief description.
With some modification, these basic motion elements are used today in a number of work measurement systems, such as Methods - Time Measurement (MTM) and the Maynard Operation Sequence Technique (MOST).
Methods analysis at the therblig level seeks to eliminate or reduce ineffective therbligs.
Reaching for an object
Grasping the object
Moving the object
Work consists of tasks
Tasks consist of work elements
Work elements consist of basic motion elements
Each therblig represents time and energy spent by a worker to perform a task.
. If the task is repetitive, of relatively short duration, and will be performed many times, it may be appropriate to analyze the therbligs that make up the work cycle as part of the work design process. The term micromotion analysis is sometimes used for this...
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