Antonio Herron EDU626:
Research Design and Methodology (MRD1221B)
Instructor: Rita Daniel
July 3, 2012
ADHD, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a behavioral condition that makes focusing on everyday requests and routines challenging. ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorders of childhood. In 2000 the disorder affected 3 to 7 of every 100 school-aged children (American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000). Today ADHD affects between 1.5 and 3.5 million school-age children in the U.S., or an estimated 5% of all boys and 2% of all girls. This makes ADHD a major health concern. Up to 60% of these children will continue to have symptoms into adulthood. According to the National Institutes of Health, more than a million children take prescription medicines to control hyperactive behavior. The estimated cost to schools is about 3 billion dollars. There are other ways of treating ADHD and throughout this study we will discuss how to treat ADHD as well as explore how ADHD affects youth. ADHD is not only over diagnosed, but it is often mis-diagnosed, according to a recent study out of Germany. According to this research, many child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists in Germany have a picture in their heads of what an "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder "child or teen looks like, or acts like, and then a child or teen that fits that picture gets the diagnosis. In this process actual diagnostic criterion takes a back seat to “experience” or “heuristics.” But does this mean that ADHD is being “over diagnosed” because of poor diagnostic criteria, or due to poor diagnostic tools? No. Rather the problem is in the lack of using either diagnostic criteria or diagnostic tools. The reason for “over diagnosis” of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is sloppy diagnostic workups by these professionals. But the study was a little sloppy too. It draws “real world” conclusions from “pretend” or “theoretical” situations. No one examined actual patients or even their charts. So how do they know that in the "real world" that ADHD is being over diagnosed? The answer is that they don't. But they do have a better understanding of the process that busy professionals use in interpreting "case vignettes" that may or may not be Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (Abdekhodaie, April 2012)
The main focus of this paper will be to examine ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and how it affects kids? I will also be exploring the cause of ADHD and what can be done to control this disorder without the use of medication. I predict that ADHD affects kids both mentally and physically. Mood swings are an emotional side effect of ADHD, affecting those of all ages with the condition. This symptom may prove hard to pinpoint, as changes in moods may also relate to stress or tense life situations, such as a divorce, moves and changes in school or jobs. Impulsivity is an emotional side effect of ADHD, which may cause individuals to become impatient and react inappropriately. Children with ADHD may receive discipline in school for blurting out comments and displaying seemingly rude behaviors. Anger is a normal human behavior. Individuals with ADHD, however, may have more trouble focusing on tasks and dealing with stress, which may cause frustration and heighten anger. (Martinez M, 2008)
I predict that ADHD is not a result of bad parenting
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not the result of "bad parenting" or obnoxious, willful defiance on the part of the child. Yes, a child may be willfully defiant whether he has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or not. Defiance, rebelliousness, and selfishness are more often "moral" issues than neurological issues. We make no excuses for "immoral," "selfish," or "destructive" behaviors, whether from individuals with ADD ADHD or not. It may be true that the child or teen's parents may need further or more in-depth training on parenting defiant children. We are constantly amazed at how many young parents today themselves grew up in homes where their own parents were gone all day. We now see "grown up latch key kids" trying to parent as best as they can, but without having had the benefit of growing up with good parental role models. This is a problem that can be solved with some training. But it is not Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD (Dawson, Catherine, 2002)
I predict that ADHD can be controlled without medicine.
If you or your children are struggling with ADHD, you need to understand that no matter how effective your medical treatment intervention might be, if you or your child is eating a bunch of junk - your symptoms from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder will not improve! No treatment - no matter how powerful - can overcome eating junk foods. We have found that this ADHD Diet makes a huge difference with about 20% to 25% of those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder that try it even without using any other intervention. We strongly believe that whether one is using a medication such as Ritalin, or using a natural alternative such as Attend, that this type of eating program plays a big role in achieving success when used as a part of a treatment plan.
Families considering treatment options should consult a qualified mental health professional for a complete review of their child's behavioral issues and a treatment plan. Children with ADHD are often more emotionally immature than their non-ADHD counterparts. This can be very pronounced, with children being several years below the emotional level of their classmates or slight, with just a small difference noted. ADHD can often cause problems in social situations, diagnosed children may have a hard time making friends or relating to other children the same age. In addition to emotional immaturity, self-esteem can be an issue. A child with ADHD may feel "different" or isolated, creating a low self-esteem. Emotional disorders, such as depression, anxiety or bipolar are also common in people with ADHD. These problems are persistent and usually cause difficulties in one or more major life areas: home, school, work, or social relationships. Clinicians base their diagnosis on the presence of the core characteristics and the problems they cause. Not all children and youth have the same type of ADHD because the disorder varies among individuals. Some may be hyperactive. Others may be under-active. Physically
Methylphenidate, more commonly known as Ritalin, can be used as part of a treatment program for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. According to Medline Plus, Ritalin is a central nervous system stimulant and acts to change certain substances in the brain. Before you agree to give your child Ritalin, you should know how Ritalin affects physical development in children. As a stimulant, Ritalin can have an effect on the physical development of children. According to MayoClinic.com, stimulant medications may be associated with a lower growth rate in children. This growth slowing pertains to both a child's height and weight. One common side effect of Ritalin is a loss of appetite, and this can even lead to weight loss while on the drug. According to Novartis, the manufacturer of Ritalin, children who take Ritalin seven days a week throughout the year showed a temporary slowing of growth. This growth did not rebound while on the drug, and was consistent throughout the three year period studied.
Studies show that a high-protein, low-sugar, no-additive diet combined with ADHD-friendly supplements like fish oil and zinc can drastically improve ADHD symptoms in children with no side effects. Good nutrition can make a significant difference in the lives of children who have been diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD). Many parents are eager to try foods and supplements to help their kids manage ADHD symptoms, but they often don’t know where to start. I have identified and addressed the concern. A concern is identified for which there is no ready answer. The concern has arisen because of an interest, and has been present for a long time. This is now a research problem. Every person can be a bit absent-minded, restless, fidgety, or impulsive. So why these same patterns of behavior are considered normal for some people and symptoms of a disorder in others? It's partly a matter of degree. With ADHD, these behaviors occur far more than occasionally. They are the rule and not the exception. Unless a child understands his or her intellectual strengths and understands the potentially negative impacts of the ADHD, they may be confused by their inability to sustain success. Self-understanding (often aided by counseling) goes a long way in helping a person with this unique combination of traits and talents attain his or her fullest potential.
Review of Related Literature (Background)
Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the 4,186 eligible families, 1,012 (24.2%) are successfully recruited. A telephone interview is administered to all families about a child in the 6 to 12 age range. It covered family living situation, school performance, symptoms of ADHD, conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), and other features of ADHD. Results: The prevalence of ADHD in France is between 3.5% and 5.6%. The population prevalence of treatment for ADHD is 3.5%. ADHD youth are more likely to be men than women, and, compared to non-ADHD children, ADHD children are more likely to have CD and ODD. Having ADHD is associated with a family history of the disorder. The ADHD youth are more likely to have had learning difficulties, to have repeated a grade, and to be functioning academically below grade level. (Lecendreux, August 2011) Father residency appears to share some relationship with symptoms of ADHD, but when symptoms reach the level for a clinical diagnosis, father residency appears to share little relationship with severity of symptoms of ADHD. (Sulak, 2012) The results of pair wise comparisons showed that children with a family history of ADHD performed significantly worse than those without family history in the time production tasks and the time reproduction task. Logistic regression analysis showed duration discrimination had a significant role in predicting whether the children were suffering from ADHD or not, while temporal processing had a significant role in predicting whether the ADHD children had a family history or not. (Huang, 2012) Methodology (Methods) Outline for ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), and how it affects kids? Research Process:
1. Formulating the Research Problem is the first and most crucial step in the research process. - Main function is to decide what you want to find out about. - The way the problem is formulated determines almost every step after. Research in this study revolves around People and Problems:
• People- a group of individuals
• Problems- examine the existence of certain issues or problems relating to their lives; to ascertain attitude of a group of people towards ADHD 2. Extensive Literature Review:
-Essential preliminary task in order to acquaint myself with the available body of knowledge in ADHD and how it affects kids. -Literature review is integral part of entire research process and makes valuable contribution to every operational step.
-Reviewing literature through the following functions:
a. Bringing clarity and focus to the research problem;
b. Improved methodology;
c. Broaden my knowledge of ADHD;
d. Contextualize my findings.
3. Developing the objectives;
-Objectives are the goals I set out to attain in this study. -They inform a reader what is to be attained through the study. -It is extremely important to word them clearly and specifically. Objectives will be listed under two headings:
a) Main objectives;
4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design;
The preparation of research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves the consideration of the following: 1. Objectives of the research study.
2. Method of Data Collection to be adopted
3. Source of information—Sample Design
4. Tool for Data collection
5. Data Analysis-- qualitative and quantitative
5. Collecting the Data;
Having formulated the research problem, developed the study design, constructed a research instrument and selected a sample, now I will collect the data from which inferences and conclusions for the study will be drawn. Then I will conduct interviews, research journals, and make observations. 6. Analysis of Data;
Processing and analyzing data involves a number of closely related operations which are performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing these in a manner that they answer the research objectives. The Data Processing operations are:
1. Editing- examine the collected raw data to detect errors and omissions and to correct these when possible. 2. Classification- arranges data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics. 7. Generalization and Interpretation;
It is useful in both academic reports and work-related reports to include a section which shows how the research can be continued. It is useful to include this section because it shows that you are aware of the wider picture and that you are not trying to cover up something which you feel may be lacking in your own work. 8. Preparation of the Report of Formal write ups of conclusions reached. Include in your discussion how you will determine the validity and reliability of data collection tools. (Creswell, J. W. (2005).) Validity is essential in research data. The data must be, in fact, what they are believed or purported to be. In other words, did we actually measure what we intended to measure, based on the focus of our ADHD and its affect on children? Validity of data obtained from the administration of tests (quantitative data) has been determined through examining various sources of evidence. (Mertler, C. & Charles, C. 2011.) Reliability, a second essential characteristic of data, refers not to authenticity but to consistency. If you administer a certain test repeatedly under identical circumstances but find that you get different results each time, you would conclude that the test is unreliable. If, however, you get similar results each time you administer the test, you would consider the results reliable and therefore potentially useful. In this research we conclude that our results are reliable and therefore potentially useful. (Mertler, C. & Charles, C.2011.)
Conclusions and Recommendations
The current study aimed to investigate Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its affect on children grades k through 6. ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. It covers how to manage ADHD with medication or without, what parents can do to help, and how to thrive with ADHD throughout the lifespan. It also offers effective academic and behavioral interventions for school, and helpful accommodations for the workplace. After several interviews with teachers currently dealing with students that have been diagnosed with ADHD, all agreed that most cases are mis-diagnosed and those students are placed on medicine without further examination. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is not the result of "bad parenting" or obnoxious, willful defiance on the part of the child. It is my recommendation that there be a more structured procedure that will not allow a child to be diagnosed with this disorder without additional psychiatric treatment.
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Huang, Jia; Yang, Bin-rang; Zou, Xiao-bing; Jing, Jin; Pen, Gang; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Chan, Raymond C. K.,Temporal Processing Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Research in Developmental Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, v33 n2 p538-548 Mar-Apr 2012 Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners, (2nd.ed), Singapore, Pearson Education.
Mertler, C. & Charles, C. (2011). Introduction to educational research (7th ed.). San Francisco: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN: 9780137013449 Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.,”Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France” Journal of Attention Disorders, v15 n6 p516-524 Aug 2011 Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter, “Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, v53 n2 p111-119 Feb 2012 Sulak, Tracey N.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Karen, “The Relationship between Father Residency and a Child's ADHD Symptoms”, Early Child Development and Care, v182 n1 p59-69 2012