Topics: Mongolia, Mongols, Genghis Khan Pages: 14 (4615 words) Published: June 2, 2013
I. Introduction.
1. A brief recommendation of Mongolia’s background.
Mongolia has a number of significant primitive locations, such as the Northern Cave of Blue in Khovd Province, White Cave in province of Bayankhongor, and Dornod Province which all advocates that Mongolia had been occupied for more than 800,000 years ( The culture of Mongolia, 2011). During the late 12th century, a tribal chief named Temujin finally merged the Mongol tribes of Manchuria and the Altai Mountains because in the early of 12th century Temujin carried the title Genghis Khan and established the Mongol Empire. After Genghis Khan died in 1259, the Mongol Empire was divided into 4 poerful Mongol states then his grandson Kublai Khan statuted one of the khanates, the Great Khaanate”, that comprising of China and Mongol. Furthermore, Kublai established his capital in Beijing but after that it was overthrew by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. In 1921, Mongolia announced independence from the Manchu Qing Dynasty. Hence, the modern country of Mongolia, however, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland. On the other hand, there are more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. In the early 1990s, a Mongolian Constitution was commenced with the “People’s Republic” being dropped from the nation’s name (People, 2011). Mongolia culture is significantly influenced by the central role of nomadism which is one of the last nations in the world today that has a higher proportion of nomadic citizens. The extreme climactic conditions of Mongolia bring huge oscillations of weather with very hot, desiccated summers and winters. Well, their environment requires a great strength and deep reserves of will in order to survive and thrive in. It is not easy for Mongolian people have lived and thrived in this callous environment for hundreds of years. Mongolian music expresses then unfathomable appreciation that Mongolians have for their country because their natural beauty and the inspiring blue sky above the vast Mongolian landscape. However, most of the Mongolian songs are regarding their beloved horses and the beauty of countryside. In addition, all Mongolians are expected to know at least one song to be shared with others during the special occasions (Mongolian Culture, 2011). Last time, education in Mongolia was fully controlled by the Buddhist monasteries and was only limited to monks. Therefore, Tibetan was the language of instruction, the canonical and liturgical language and all these languages were used at the lower levels of education. However, higher-level education was only available in the major monasteries, and usually they need many years to complete the formal degrees, which included the training in logic and debate terms. While in the early twentieth century, most of the officials and rich families would hire private tutors for their children, and government offices operated informal apprenticeships that taught the minutiae of written records, standard forms, and accounting. Official Mongolians were inclined to illustrate the prerevolutionary period as one of total backwardness due to under approximated the level of literacy. In the late of the twentieth century, Mongolia has achieved well in their economic development and popular in education will have produced unfathomable and probably irremediable that would make the changes in the structure of society. After a few decades of commitment to increasing the index of economic growth and putting up with agreement with its policies, for example, the ruling Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party responding in part to trends toward political to reformed in the Soviet Union, this was encouraging greater public discussion and criticism of past practices. From here, the Mongolian leaders seemed to be ready to step back and to think about the price of progress and also to discuss the future course of the country's development and...
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