Molecular Electronics

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MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

INTRODUCTION Molecular electronics (sometimes called moletronics) is a branch of applied physics which aims at using molecules as passive (e.g. resistive wires) or active (e.g. transistors) electronic components. The concept of molecular electronics has aroused much excitement both in science fiction and among scientists due to the prospect of size reduction in electronics offered by such minute components. It is an enticing alternative to extend Moore's Law beyond the foreseen limits of small-scale conventional silicon integrated circuits. Often molecular electronics is envisioned as the next step in device miniaturization. The importance of molecules in device applications stems not only from their electronic properties, but also from their ability to bind to one another, recognize each other, assemble into larger structures, and exhibit dynamical stereochemistry. As a result, molecular electronics is currently a very active research field

HISTORY Study of charge transfer in molecules was advanced in the 1940s by Robert Mulliken and Albert Szent-Gyorgi in discussion of so-called "donor-acceptor" systems and developed the study of charge transfer and energy transfer in molecules. Likewise, a 1974 paper from Mark Ratner and Avi Aviram 1 illustrated a theoretical molecular rectifier. Later, Aviram detailed a single-molecule field-effect transistor in 1988. Further concepts were proposed by Forrest Carter of the Naval Research Laboratory, including single-molecule logic gates. Apart from the Aviram and Ratner proposal, molecular electronics received an initial boost from the experimental discovery of conducting polymers in the mid-seventies. Before this date, organic molecules (which form crystals or polymers) were considered insulating or at best weakly conducting semi-conductors. In 1974, McGinness, Corry, and Proctor reported the first molecular electronic device in the journal Science. As its active

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