ROLL NO: MO 3025
Q1- Describe the life and work of Dr Maria Montessori.
Ans: Montessori was born on August 31, 1870 in Chiaravalle, Italy. Her father, Alessandro Montessori was a military man who had very conservative thinking. Her mother, Renilde Stoppani was well educated and liberal in her ideas and would encourage & support Maria. She also had a loving relationship with her father, although he disagreed with her choice to continue her education. Her early school record was "not particularly noteworthy", although she was awarded certificates for good behaviour in the 1st grade and for "lavori donneschi", or "women's work", the next year. At the age of 16, she continued at the technical institute studying Italian, mathematics, history, geography, geometric and ornate drawing, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and two foreign languages. She did well in the sciences and especially in mathematics. She initially intended to pursue the study of engineering upon graduation, an unusual aspiration for a woman in her time and place. However, by the time she graduated in 1890 at the age of 20, with a certificate in physics–mathematics, she had decided to study medicine instead, an even more unlikely pursuit given cultural norms at the time. Montessori won an academic prize in her first year, and in 1895 secured a position as a hospital assistant, gaining early clinical experience. In her last two years she studied pediatrics and psychiatry, and worked in the paediatric consulting room and emergency service, becoming an expert in pediatric medicine. Montessori graduated from the University of Rome in 1896 as a doctor of medicine. Her thesis was published in 1897 in the journal Policlinico. She found employment as an assistant at the University hospital and started a private practice. From 1896 to 1901, Montessori worked with and researched so-called "phrenasthenic" children—in modern terms, children experiencing some form of mental retardation,