Module 1-2 Notes
Topics: Scientific method, Psychometrics, Level of measurement, Validity, Measurement / Pages: 6 (1366 words) / Published: Sep 2nd, 2013

“Pure Science”
Fernando Garzon, Psy.D. • “Pure Science” I • Common assumptions • Journals & the file drawer phenomenon • “Publish or perish” pressure • Science politics in theory development • It is commonly assumed that the scientific method is objective and reliable to reveal truth. • File drawer phenomenon: Journals rarely publish studies that don’t find statistically significant findings. • Is it really the theory that explains the data the best that is adopted? Personality, popularity, & connections play a role • Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

“Pure Science” II
Scientific bias
Cyril Burt and IQ data
National political climate bias
Can some subjects really be explored “objectively”?
Homosexuality, abortion, homeschooling

“Pure Science” III
The sinful nature & the flesh in science
“Pure” & “objective”?
Consider the flesh’s influence on these
Temptations to fudge statistics to get published?
Grudges & vendettas against “opponents”?
Biases that prevent legitimate research exploration of “politically hot” areas?
“Pure Science” IV
Theology matters in science
General revelation & special revelation
Human nature & science
Place for authoritative knowledge of Scripture along with other forms
Keep science in perspective

Reasoning in Research
Fernando Garzon, Psy.D.
Liberty University
Propositional Logic I
Deductive reasoning
1. Begins with a theory
2. Makes predictions from it.

Bible & forgiveness example
Experiments can build evidence for or against theory
Propositional Logic II
Inductive reasoning
1. Begins with observations (sometimes from research studies)
2. Develops a general theory
The opposite direction compared to deductive reasoning
The observations can lead to the proposal of a theory.
Medical/psychological research & forgiveness example

Some Key Research Concepts
Construct Definition &

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