Module 04 Case Study: Bone Tissue
Part I— “Marissa” Questions
1. Describe bone tissue and the role each component plays in bone physiology and remodeling. What is the difference between compact and spongy bone? (2 points)
--There are four types of bone tissues in the body. They are osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclast, and osteogenic. Osteocytes are mature bones and are used to maintain mineral concentration of the matrix. Osteoclast are responsible for the tearing down and reabsorption of the bone. Osteoblast are then key to building and production of new immature bone. Osteogenic are undifferentiated cells with high mitotic activity and are the only bone cells able to divide. Compact bones are dense osteon tissue that are able to withstand compressive forces. Spongy bones are osseous tissue that supports shifts in weight distributions. Compact bones are dense and hard, located on the outside of the bone. Spongy bones are an open network to fill bones to give support and are located on the inside of bones, such as long bones.
2. Explain the relationship between calcium and bones. (1 point)
--The relationship between calcium and bones are that calcium aids in the growth of health bones. Calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate are essential in the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals which give bones their hardness and strength.
3. Explain how the body controls calcium levels in the bones and blood. Be sure to describe the roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in detail. (2 points)
---The bones are a huge resource for the body to get the amount of calcium it needs to function properly. Osteocytes are responsible for maintaining mineral concentrations within the matrix, this includes calcium. Canaliculi are channels that hold long cytoplasmic processes throughout the bone matrix, allowing osteocytes to communicate and regulate nutrients within the bones. The Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin are hormones that regulate the level of calcium in the blood needed for the body to function in a homeostatic level. When the level of calcium needs to be increase the parathyroid hormone is stimulated allowing the level of calcium to increase. When the level of calcium is to low, calcitonin is released to lower the level of calcium in the blood.
4. Explain specifically how osteoporosis affects the bone matrix and the normal bone remodeling cycle. (1 point)
--Osteoporosis is the effect of osteoclasts breaking down bones faster than the osteoblasts can make them. In the normal bone remodeling cycle, osteoblasts form new bone by secreting collagen matrix and calcium salts. Then the osteoblasts calcify, change structures and become osteocytes. Osteocytes maintain the level of calcium in the bones until they are broken down by osteoclasts to be reabsorbed. The constant breaking down and rebuilding of the osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the maintenance of healthy bones. An imbalance in this process will lead to brittle bones or osteoporosis.
5. Discuss what scientists know about the genetics behind osteoporosis. (1 point)
--Scientists believe that genetics play a strong role in osteoporosis. Things like bone mass and bone turnover are believed to be predisposed in your genetic makeup, leaving you more susceptible to osteoporosis in later years.
6. List at least 5 controllable and 3 uncontrollable risk factors for this disease. (1 point)
-Don’t consume large
Amounts of alcohol
-Make sure to get enough
vitamin D and calcium in your diet
7. What are the symptoms or telltale signs of osteoporosis? (1 point)
-- Some symptoms or signs that you may have osteoporosis are stooped posture, bone fractures that occur more easily than expected, lower back pain, or loss in height over time.
Part II— “Jeremy” Questions
References: Calcium and Vitamin D: Top Foods to Prevent Osteoporosis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/guide/calcium-vitamin-d-foods
Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/bone/osteoporosis/bone_mass.asp
Betts, J. Anatomy & physiology. OpenStax College.
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