Models of memory and theories
This essay is going to look at how the Multi Store Model of Memory works and how it compares with The Working Memory Model. It will also look at three theories of forgetting (Cue Dependent, Interference and Trace Decay) and show the evidence that supports or criticises the models and theories.
The Multi Store Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968) describes memory as a flowing through system in terms of information. The multi store model of memory itself has its fair share of strengths and weaknesses. One of the criticisms about it is that it is a linear model that only shows how the information flows through the processes of memory. It is also assumed that any information must pass through each stage for it to be remembered. The capacity and duration is has it’s limitations at each stage and it also indentifies ways in which information is forgotten. One of its weaknesses is that it is too simplistic to explain because it fails to consider how an individual use strategies to remember. Another weakness of the multi store model of memory is that it heavily focuses on the process itself. It considers by the amount of information that can be processed not the nature. Another criticism of the multi store model is that it suggested that the only way for a memory to stay is through a process of rote rehearsal which transfers thoughts from short term memory to long term memory. One of the strengths of the multi store model is that there have been a lot of studies which has evidence that supports the difference between the short term and the long term memory in terms of encoding, duration and capacity. It has also had a significant influence because it has created a lot of studies into memory.
The Working Memory Model was developed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974). It became apparent to them that there were a number of problems with their ideas with regards about the characteristics of the short term memory. Baddeley and Hitch argued that