The description of schemata
According to barlet in flowerdew and miller (2005:26) a schema consists of an active organization of past experiences. Organization organizes knowledge about certain properties of objects, events, and actions which typically belong together. The basic idea is that human knowledge bis organized and stored in memory accrding to re – occuring events. Widdowson in ajideh (2006 : 4) postulates two levels of language : a systematic and a schematic level. The systematic level includes the phonological , morphological and syntactic elements of language, while schematic levele relates to our background knowledge. Wilson (2008:15) schemata refers to the world knowledge, knowledge of the speaker or context, an analogy (if the situation is familiar, listeners can guess what they are going to hear next). Brown (2001 : 249) states that the hearer recals background information or cshemata relevant to the particular context and subject matter. A lifetime of experiences and knowledge is used to perform a cognitie association in order to bring a plausible interpretation to the messages. Schemata is also defines packets of information stored in memory representing general knowledge about objects, situations, events, or actions. From this explanation, schemat a are created through experience with people, objects, and events in the world. Schemata are built up from numerous experiences of similar events. Barlett in chang (2000:211) argues that the knowledge in our heads is internally organized in to interrelated patterns that are constructed from an individual’s past experience of a given environment. These patterns, coined as schema, enable us to make predictions and inferences about the new experiences. Based on the explanation above, schemata is certain patterns which are related to the past experience. Past experience is used to make predictions and inferences about the new one. Carrel in chang (2000 : 212) states
“ all in all, the general...
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