Martin Luther King, Jr.
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"Martin Luther King" and "MLK" redirect here. For other uses, see Martin Luther King (disambiguation) and MLK (disambiguation). Page semi-protected
Martin Luther King, Jr.
King in 1964
Michael King, Jr.
January 15, 1929
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
April 4, 1968 (aged 39)
Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial
Morehouse College (B.A.)
Crozer Theological Seminary (B.D.)
Boston University (Ph.D.)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Influenced by
Jesus Christ, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Bayard Rustin, Howard Thurman Political movement
African-American Civil Rights Movement, Peace movement Religion
Baptist (Progressive National Baptist Convention)
Coretta Scott King (m. 1953–68)
Yolanda Denise-King (deceased)
Martin Luther King III
Dexter Scott King
Bernice Albertine King
Martin Luther King, Sr.
Alberta Williams King
Nobel Peace Prize (1964), Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977, posthumous), Congressional Gold Medal (2004, posthumous) Signature
Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. King has become a national icon in the history of American progressivism.
A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. With the SCLC, King led an unsuccessful struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia in 1962, and organized nonviolent protests in Birmingham, Alabama that attracted national attention following television news coverage of the brutal police response. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. He also established his reputation as a radical, and became an object of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's COINTELPRO for the rest of his life. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion, mailed King a threatening anonymous letter that he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.
On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he and the SCLC helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches, and the following year, he took the movement north to Chicago. In the years leading up to his death, he expanded his focus to include poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled "Beyond Vietnam." King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., called the Poor People's Campaign.
King was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many US cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing him, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting, and the jury of a 1999 civil trial found Loyd Jowers to be complicit in a conspiracy against King. King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor. A memorial statue in Washington, D.C. was opened to the public in 2011. Contents
1 Early life and education
2 Ideas, influences, and political stances
References: Abernathy, Ralph (1989). And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography. Harper & Row. ISBN 0060161922.
Branch, Taylor (2006). At Canaan 's Edge: America In the King Years, 1965–1968. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 068485712X.
Cohen, Adam Seth; Taylor, Elizabeth (2000). Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley: His Battle for Chicago and the Nation. Back Bay. ISBN 0316834890.
Frady, Marshall (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Life. Penguin. ISBN 9780143036487.
Garrow, David J. (1981). The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140064869.
Glisson, Susan M. (2006). The Human Tradition in the Civil Rights Movement. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742544095.
Herst, Burton (2007). Bobby and J. Edger. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0786719826.
Jackson, Thomas F. (2006). From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Struggle for Economic Justice. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 9780812239690.
King, Jr., Martin Luther (1998). Carson, Clayborne. ed. Autobiography. Warner Books. p. 6. ISBN 0446524123.
King, Jr., Martin Luther; Carson, Clayborne; Holloran, Peter; Luker, Ralph; Russell, Penny A. (1992). The papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. University of California Press. ISBN 0520079507.
Kotz, Nick (2005). Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Laws that Changed America. Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 0618088253.
Lawson, Steven F.; Payne, Charles M.; Patterson, James T. (2006). Debating the Civil Rights Movement, 1945–1968. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742551091.
Robbins, Mary Susannah (2007). Against the Vietnam War: Writings by Activists. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742559149.
Washington, James M. (1991). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. HarperCollins. ISBN 0060646918.
Ayton, Mel (2005)
Branch, Taylor (1988). Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–1963. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671460978.
Branch, Taylor (1998). Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–1965. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684808196.
Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1989). Pulitzer Prize. ISBN 9780060566920
King, Coretta Scott (1993) 
Kirk, John A., ed. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement: Controversies and Debates (2007). 224 pp.
Schulke, Flip; McPhee, Penelope. King Remembered, Foreword by Jesse Jackson (1986). ISBN 9781403996541
"Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., 1929–1968", one hour documentary report by Democracy Now!
"Martin Luther King, Jr
Why I Am Opposed to the War in Vietnam, sermon at the Ebenezer Baptist Church on April 30, 1967 (audio of speech with video 23:31)
Awards and achievements
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