English Oral Test
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full contact combat sport that allows the use of both striking and grappling techniques, both standing and on the ground. The roots of modern mixed martial arts can be traced back to the ancient Olympics where one of the earliest documented systems of full range unarmed combat was in the sport of pankration. The combat sport of vale tudo that had developed in Brazil from the 1920s was brought to the United States by the Gracie family in 1993 with the founding of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC).The more dangerous vale-tudo-style bouts of the early UFC’s were made safer with the implementation of additional rules, aimed at increasing safety for competitors, which leads to the popular regulated form of MMA seen today. During the Classic Greek era there existed an ancient Olympic combat sport, known as Pankration which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills, similar to modern mixed martial arts. This sport originated in Ancient Greece and was later passed on to the Romans. In the late 1960s to early 1970s, the concept of combining the elements of multiple martial arts was popularized in the west by Bruce Lee via his philosophy of Jeet Kune Do. Mixed martial arts competitions were introduced in the United States with the first Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) in 1993. The sport reached a new peak of popularity in North America in the December 2006 rematch between the UFC light heavyweight champion Chuck Liddell and former champion Tito Ortiz. The high profile of modern MMA promotions such as UFC and Pride FC has fostered an accelerated development of the sport. As competitions became more and more common, those with a base in striking arts became more competitive as they cross trained in arts based around takedowns and submission holds, likewise, those from the varying grappling styles added striking techniques to their arsenal. This increase of cross-training resulted in fighters...
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