Biology Mitosis and Meiosis Study Guide
Videos if you want/need them.
Maybe helpful sites?
Diagram and label a chromosome.
Describe the structure of a nucleosome. What is the role of the nucleosome in supercoiling AND in the regulation of transcription (You will have to check Campbell Ch. 18pp.)
The nucleosome is basically
Interphase is broken down into distinguishable phases. What are these parts of Interphase and what happens in the cell for each?
Interphase is broken down into G
S phase, and G
. During G
, the cell growths, produces
protein, produces organelles, and does normal cell activity (NCA non IB term). During S (S stands for synthesis) phase, the cell copies DNA through semiconservative DNA synthesis. Some cells continue NCA, while some freeze all cell activity. During G , the cell duplicates
chromosomes to get ready for mitosis, as well as grow, make organelles, make proteins, and NCA.
There are three important checkpoints in the cell cycle. What are they, what is being “checked”, and what are the alternative pathways the cell can take for each? G
and metaphase checkpoint. At G
, the cell checks to see if the it needs to divide.If yes, 1,
the cell continues to S phase, if no, the cell goes into G where it just does normal cell activity
forever and ever. The next checkpoint is the G
checkpoint, where the cell checks to see if
DNA is damaged, and fixes it if it is. The next checkpoint happens in Mitosis, right after metaphase, and is called the metaphase checkpoint. Here, the cell checks to see if everything lined up right during metaphase, and if everything is attached, so it can continue into Anaphase.
In general, explain how the events of the cell cycle are controlled. The events of the cell cycle are controlled by cyclins, which is basically all you need to know. However, if you want to know more, cyclins act as activators for Cyclindependent Protein Kinases, which signal the cell cycle to continue through phosphorylation.
What are the defining events for each of the four phases of mitosis? I think the best way to show this is with a chart list hybrid: Prophase
Nuclear envelope dissolves, centrioles start making microtubules, nucleolus disappears, and chromosomes supercoil,
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell (cell equator), asters are visible and in place at each end of the cell.
Anaphase (A.K.A Arnoldphase)
The chromosomes are pulled apart (really the kinetochores eat the microtubules).
Cytokinesis (once you can see the cell starts to split, then its in telophase), chromosomes start to uncoil, nuclear membrane reforms, nucleolus returns, Interphase again
the moment the cell has split both cells enter interphase.
What is cytokinesis, and where does it fit in the cell cycle? Cytokinesis is when the cell physically separates into two new cells. In animal cells, the spindle fibers push the cells apart, forming a cleavage furrow where the cell separates. In plant cells, a cell plate is formed where the plant separates, and basically forms a new cell wall that separates the new cells. This all happens during Telophase.
Draw a diagram of a cell with six chromosomes at each phase of mitosis. Be able to recognize cell phases from photographs of actual cells.
Hopefully you have this in your notes, if not what have you been doing with your life. (Sleeping is probably the best answer.)
Regardless, I will try to post pictures here later, and if you don’t see this then that means that later has passed. ...
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