Top-Rated Free Essay

Mitochondria and Chloroplast a detailed comparison between the functions and purposes of the mitochondria and chloroplast.

Satisfactory Essays
When comparing and contrasting the mitochondria and chloroplast, a person learns all of the similarities and differences between the two. In this essay, you will read about the mitochondria, the chloroplast, and their biochemical reactions.

The mitochondria often referred to as the powerhouse cell is found in the eukaruotic cells. There, those cells are often found in groups of hundreds. Mitochondria cells can be anywhere from 1 to 10 um long in length, but are able to change shapes, move, and divide into two. The cell itself is enclosed in an envelope of two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth while the other is convoluted with unfoldings called cristae. The mitochondrion becomes even more complex when divided into its two internal compartments, the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix.

In the mitochondria, the biochemical reaction, respiration takes place. The balanced formula for respiration is C6H12O6 + 6 H2O à 6 H2O + 6 O2 + E, the catalyst being enzymes. Respiration is when oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel. In order for the process take place, food must be available, along with oxygen. The first two stages occur due to glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle. These processes decompose glucose and other organic fuels. Glycolysis, which occurs in the cytosol, begins breaking down glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate. The Kreb's Cycle finishes what has been started by decomposing of what is left of the pyruvate into carbon dioxide. The third stage involves the electron transport chain. The chain takes electrons from the breakdown products from the previous stages, and in the end, water is created. During respiration, if oxygen is present, the pyruvic acid will be sent for conversion in the mitochondrion, which produces ATP molecules.

Chloroplast both alike and dislike the mitochondria is a specialized member of a closely related plant organelle called plastids. Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll along with enzymes and other molecules that function in photosynthetic production of food. Structurally this cell is lens shaped and measures about 2 um by 5 um. Chloroplasts are found in leaves and green organs of plants and eukayotic algae. These cells too are enclosed in two membranes. As with the mitochondria, the static and rigid appearance of chloroplast in electron micrographs is not true.

In the chloroplast, photosynthesis takes place. The formula for this process is just the opposite to respiration, being that in photosynthesis, energy is gained, not released, 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + E à C6H12O6 + 6 O2, with the catalyst being enzymes. Photosynthesis can only affect plants, being that chloroplast exists in them and not in animals or humans. According to the formula, plants must have carbon dioxide, water, and energy from the sun in order to produce glucose and the air we breathe, oxygen. There are two stages when executing photosynthesis, light reactions and the Calvin Cycle. The light reactions are the steps of photosynthesis that convert solar energy to chemical energy. Oxygen atoms from water molecules are a source of the oxygen that we breathe in the atmosphere. The carbons from the carbon dioxide that we exhale, and the hydrogen from water molecules, are the sources for these atoms to build carbohydrates. The sun breaks down water molecules to help make carbohydrates and oxygen, this process is called photolysis. The next sequence of chemical reactions is commonly referred to as the dark reaction. This reaction unlike the light reaction does not need light. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms then leave the thylakoids and move into the stroma where they form carbohydrates. The carbon dioxide molecule then becomes unstable and the splits. The ending molecule, PGLA, is used to form the end products of photosynthesis.

So in conclusion, you can see that the mitochondria and chloroplast are very complex and contain many different elements.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    is the mitochondria, nicknamed the "powerhouse of the cell." The second is the chloroplast in plant cells that have functions similar to those of the mitochondria. What do these organelles do? What are the similarities and differences of these organelles? This essay will help you to understand these two fascinating organelles. II. Mitochondria Mitochondria are small cytoplasmic organelles. They are five to 10 micrometers long and one to .5 micrometers wide. They main function is to provide…

    • 576 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    many differences and similarities between the mitochondria and chloroplast. Mitochondria and chloroplast need energy to perform their jobs. Both of them are in plant cells. The reactions take place in these two organelles. The chloroplast has stroma which is a sticky substance where the Calvin cycle happens. The cytoplasm in the mitochondria is where glycolysis takes places. Mitochondria is where the Kreb’s cycle takes place. Differences and similarities between these two organelles are found, but…

    • 89 Words
    • 1 Page
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    The Endosymbiont Hypothesis and the evolution of the Chloroplast and Mitochondria Dr Lynn Margulis is seen as the first person to have put forward the Endosymbiont Hypothesis which is based on a theory which explains the likely origin of the mitochondria and chloroplast (plants) in eukaryote organisms which we observe today. Dr Margulis received evidence from all over the world and from many scientific researchers and experiments, Margulis simply had to put all the evidence together to form her…

    • 1761 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    in an utilizable form is something essential for the functioning of any organism. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are the two primary organelles in eukaryotic cells that involve in the transformation of energy, thus in production and consumption respectively. The chloroplast is an organelle present only in plant cells and some prokaryotes. At the same time they are absent in animal cells. It’s through the chloroplast that entry of energy to a cell takes place where sunlight is used to trap and convert…

    • 884 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mitochondria

    • 700 Words
    • 3 Pages

    In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.[1] These organelles range from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer (μm) in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.[2] In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signaling, cellular differentiation…

    • 700 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Mitochondria

    • 1376 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell. Located in the cytoplasm, they are the sites of cellular respiration which ultimately generates fuel for the cell's activities. Mitochondria are also involved in other cell processes such as cell division and growth, as well as cell death. They convert oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the chemical energy "currency" of the cell that powers the cell's metabolic activities…

    • 1376 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Cell Chloroplast

    • 613 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Diana Rubene LS2B Abstract The chloroplast is most commonly recognized for its vital role in plant cells & protist cells as their main provider of energy. Within this review we are going to discuss what exactly is chloroplast what structures make up this complex & super efficient organelle which is so important not only to plants & protists, but also to us. How exactly does it absorb and use solar energy and use it to produce carbohydrates rich with energy that can be passed down the food chain,…

    • 613 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mitochondria

    • 1015 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Mitochondrion (plural, mitochondria), is found in nearly all eukaryotes. Plants, animals, fungi, and protists all have mitochondria. Mitochondria are large enough to be observed with a light microscope and were first discovered in the 1800s. For many years after their discovery, mitochondria were commonly believed to transmit hereditary information. It was not until the mid-1950s when a method for isolating the organelles intact was developed that the modern understanding of mitochondrial function was worked…

    • 1015 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis All animals and most microorganisms rely on the continual uptake of large amounts of organic compounds from their environment. These compounds are used to provide both the carbon skeletons for biosynthesis and the metabolic energy that drives cellular processes. It is believed that the first organisms on the primitive Earth had access to an abundance of the organic compounds produced by geochemical processes, but that most of these original compounds were used up billions…

    • 6928 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The Marvelous Mitochondria

    • 1117 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Marvelous Mitochondria” The Mitochondria was discovered in 1890 by a German cell Biologist Richard Altmann under the name of bio blasts. He first theorized that the bio blasts had metabolic and genetic self-sufficiency characteristics. Years later, it was given a name change by another German Biologist, Karl Benda, to the name of Mitochondria. Today, we know that the Mitochondria is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. According to David Schardt’s article “Manipulating Mitochondria” There is…

    • 1117 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays