Mitochondria and Chloroplast a detailed comparison between the functions and purposes of the mitochondria and chloroplast.

Topics: Photosynthesis, Adenosine triphosphate, Oxygen Pages: 2 (630 words) Published: June 23, 2003
When comparing and contrasting the mitochondria and chloroplast, a person learns all of the similarities and differences between the two. In this essay, you will read about the mitochondria, the chloroplast, and their biochemical reactions.

The mitochondria often referred to as the powerhouse cell is found in the eukaruotic cells. There, those cells are often found in groups of hundreds. Mitochondria cells can be anywhere from 1 to 10 um long in length, but are able to change shapes, move, and divide into two. The cell itself is enclosed in an envelope of two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth while the other is convoluted with unfoldings called cristae. The mitochondrion becomes even more complex when divided into its two internal compartments, the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix.

In the mitochondria, the biochemical reaction, respiration takes place. The balanced formula for respiration is C6H12O6 + 6 H2O à 6 H2O + 6 O2 + E, the catalyst being enzymes. Respiration is when oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel. In order for the process take place, food must be available, along with oxygen. The first two stages occur due to glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle. These processes decompose glucose and other organic fuels. Glycolysis, which occurs in the cytosol, begins breaking down glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate. The Kreb's Cycle finishes what has been started by decomposing of what is left of the pyruvate into carbon dioxide. The third stage involves the electron transport chain. The chain takes electrons from the breakdown products from the previous stages, and in the end, water is created. During respiration, if oxygen is present, the pyruvic acid will be sent for conversion in the mitochondrion, which produces ATP molecules.

Chloroplast both alike and dislike the mitochondria is a specialized member of a closely related plant organelle called plastids. Chloroplasts contain the green...
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