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26: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Objectives
Body Fluids 1. List the factors that determine body water content and describe the effect of each factor. 2. Indicate the relative fluid volume and solute composition of the fluid compartments of the body. 3. Contrast the overall osmotic effects of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. 4. Describe factors that determine fluid shifts in the body.

Water Balance and ECF Osmolality 5. List the routes by which water enters and leaves the body. 6. Describe feedback mechanisms that regulate water intake and hormonal controls of water output in urine. 7. Explain the importance of obligatory water losses. 8. Describe possible causes and consequences of dehydration, hypotonic hydration, and edema.

Electrolyte Balance 9. Indicate routes of electrolyte entry and loss from the body. 10. Describe the importance of ionic sodium in fluid and electrolyte balance of the body, and indicate its relationship to normal cardiovascular system functioning. 11. Describe mechanisms involved in regulating sodium balance, blood volume, and blood pressure. 12. Explain how potassium, calcium, and anion balances in plasma are regulated.

Acid-Base Balance 13. List important sources of acids in the body. 14. Name the three major chemical buffer systems of the body and describe how they resist pH changes. 15. Describe the influence of the respiratory system on acid-base balance. 16. Describe how the kidneys regulate hydrogen and bicarbonate ion concentrations in the blood. 17. Distinguish between acidosis and alkalosis resulting from respiratory and metabolic factors. Describe the importance of respiratory and renal compensations to acid-base balance.

Developmental Aspects of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 18. Explain why infants and the aged are at greater risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances than are young adults.
Chapter



References: 1. Marieb, E. N., and S. J. Mitchell. Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual: Cat and Fetal Pig Versions. Ninth Edition Updates. Benjamin Cummings, 2009. Section 26.2 Water Balance and ECF Osmolality (pp. 998–1002) Interactive Physiology® 10-System Suite: Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance: Introduction to Body Fluids Section 26.3 Electrolyte Balance (pp. 1002–1008) MP3 Tutor Session: Regulation of Blood Volume and Blood Pressure Section 26.4 Acid-Base Balance (pp. 1008–1015) Interactive Physiology® 10-System Suite: Acid/Base Homeostasis Section 26.5 Developmental Aspects of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance (p. 1015) Chapter Summary

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