Social policies mirror the history of social welfare in a country or a region. They also reflect the social, cultural, economic and political context of the societies in which they are located. They tend to evolve slowly and attempt to address pressing social problems, meet human needs and promote the social well-being of the population as a whole. The norms and values of a society and its varying traditions and practices designed to meet human needs also influence the direction of social policies. As societies change, so too do their social policies. This assignment will discuss and illustrate how social problems/needs contribute in formulation of social policies and also highlight stages in policy formulation.
2. DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.1.Social policy- Social policies are intervention instruments developed by the state to provide for the wellbeing and social protection of citizens and include actions to prevent social risk or to resolve existing social problems.
2.2.Social problems-refers to issues that influences and is opposed by the considerable number of individual within a society. It is often the consequences of factors extending beyond the individual control and local geographical environment. In some cases, it is also the source of conflicting opinion on the ground of what is perceived as a moral just (Zastrow 2010).
2.3.Policy- Cloete (2006: 14) defines policy as ‘the authoritative allocation through the political process of values to groups or individuals in society’.
3. SOCIAL PROBLEMS CONTRIBUTING TO THE FORMULATION OF SOCIAL POLICY
Social development policy when it was initially formulated was focused on national needs and challenges and the implementations of globalization where taken into account at that time. However, today globalization and regionalism are at the centre of economic, political social and cultural debate and should inform policy formulation (Patel 2005: 315).
Poverty can be defined as the
References: Patel L. Social Welfare and Social Development in South Africa, 2005, Cape town: Oxford University Press. Cloete F, Wissink H, & De Coning C, 2006, Improving Public Policy from Theory to Practice 2nd ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Jansson B.S, 2007, Social policy from theory to policy practice, 2nd ed. California: Brook/ Coles Publishing Company Deacon B, 2007, Global Social Policy and Governance, London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Chambers D.E, 2009, Social Policy and Social Programs: A Method for the Practical Public Policy Analyst, 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publisher Company.