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MINOR PROJECT
A
PROJECT REPORT
ON
MULTIPLAYER GAMING
USING NETWORKING

PHAsE-FINAL SUBMITTED BY:
VARNIKA JOSHI(10104707)
CHAYAN SALUJA(10103412)
ABHISHEK VERMA(101034)20)
KONARK JAIN(10103403)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

WE ARE GRATEFUL TO OUR PROJECT MENTOR AND OUR TEACHER MR. ADARSH KUMAR FOR HIS GUIDANCE AND CONSTRUCTIVE SUGGESTIONS THAT HELPED US A LOT IN THIS PROJECT.

WE WOULD ALSO LIKE TO EXPRESS OUR THANKS TO THE JAYPEE INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR PROVIDING THIS OPPORTUNITY & EXTENDING THEIR SUPPORT. WE ALSO THANK OUR COLLEAGUES AND MEMBERS WHO HAVE HELPED US WITH THEIR INVALUABLE TIME AND IDEAS DURING THIS PROJECT.

ABSTRACT
OUR game is a modification of Half-life, which is an online video game of the First Person Shooter (FPS) genre. This game splits the players into 2 teams: the terrorists and the counter-terrorists; one of them has an objective to complete
(i.e.: rescuing hostages, blasting a bombsite with C4, rescuing a VIP) while the other one has to try and prevent them achieving it.
The type of objective that one of the team will be asked to achieve is defined by the map (the pre-defined world where the game will take place), and the game on each map is sub-divided in rounds. A round ends when one team is dead or has achieved their objective, or when the timer reaches 0. When a player is killed, he re-spawns at the beginning of the next round.
This game modification was developed in 1999 and is -over the last 4 years- the most played multiplayer online game. This guide has been written for a variant of
Counter-Strike, called “pistols only” where only handguns, grenades and knifes are considered as valid weapons.
The set of guidelines in this document should be considered as suggestions to players regarding the strategic aspect of this game, they are not a way to achieve guaranteed victory.

Introduction
Multiplayer is a mode of play for computer games and video games where two or more gamers can play in the same game at the same time, co-operatively as a clan (or team) or head-to-head competitively (often referred to asdeathmatch) . Multiplayer mode may be a split screen where the gamers play at the same time on one system, or where gamers play on separate systems connected to a LAN or Internet game server.

While playing, be prepared to do anything: it is a world where anything is possible and fast thinking is required. Your team’s victory will depend on how each member is able to gather information, and react to it.
In order to achieve optimum game results, make sure of the following:
Your selected resolution is the highest your computer can cope with, without displaying a slow game. A high resolution allows you to see details far away.
Get an optical mouse, their precision is worth it; ideally with 5 buttons.
You can hear sounds from the game: not only the rounds you shoot, but the footsteps of the players around you, enemies reloading …
Avoid listening to music while playing.
Prefer headphones over loudspeakers for increase sound accuracy.
Position yourself comfortably.
Achieving victory does not happen because of luck, but because of a set of events that bring your team closer to victory step by step.
Therefore every player has to keep in mind that this game has to be played as part of a team and not as a lone player.
Staying alone will:
Get you killed (very probably you will not be able to achieve much that could help your team before dying).
Diminish the strength of your team.
Make it harder for your team to complete its objective.
Bring victory closer to the enemy.
It is preferable to die to help the team achieve an objective, rather than stay alive and be defeated.
In order to win, the team has to play as one to reach of their objective. The tough part is that each team members’ role cannot be defined once and for all: they have to be dynamic depending on the situation the team faces.

OBJECTIVES * Game challenge * Curiosity * Control * Engagement with the fantasy of the game. * Identity presentation * Social relations * Playing * Learning * Achievement * Helping * In-world rewards * Immersion * Uniqueness

CLEAR DIVISION OF PROJECT WORK AMONG GROUP MEMBERS

BACKGROUND STUDY

Networked multiplayer gaming modes are colloquially called "netplay" to refine the meaning. The first popular video gaming title to release a LAN version was Spectre in 1991 for the Apple Macintosh, featuring AppleTalk support for up to eight game players. Spectre 's multiplayer popularity was attributed in part by the display of a player 's name above their cyber tank vehicle. This was followed by Doom in 1993, when the first network version of the game allowed a total of four simultaneous gamers.

Playing networked multiplayer games via LAN often eliminates problems common in Internet play, such as lag and anonymity of players. As a result, multiplayer games usually are the focus of LAN parties. Play-by-email games are multiplayer games that use email as the method of communication between computers. Other turn-based variations which do not require players to be online at the same time are Play-by-post gaming and Play-by-Internet. Some online games are "massively multiplayer" games, which means that a large number of players participate simultaneously. The two major genres are MMORPG (massively multiplayer online role-playing game) such as World of Warcraft or EverQuest andMMORTS (massively multiplayer online real-time strategy).

ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

 The task is complex or conceptual
 Problem Solving is desired
 Divergent thinking or creativity is desired
 Mastery or retention is important
 Quality of performance is expected
 Higher level reasoning strategies and critical thinking are needed

Further analysis of the interview material and video recordings resulted in several different perspectives on
OUR gameplay. Below we discuss important elements shaping and influencing gameplay on four analytical levels; (1) player actions during play,
(2) interactions within and between teams,
(3) players and fans on the Internet, and
(4) the gaming scene.

MOST COMMON NETWORK PROBLEMS * Connectivity Problem: A connectivity problem with one or more devices in a network can occur after a change is made in configuration or by a malfunction of a connectivity component, such as hub, a router or a Switch.

* Excessive Network Collisions: These often lead to slow connectivity. The problem can occur as a result of bad network setup/plan, a user transferring a lot of information or jabbering network card.

* Software Problem: Network problems can often be traced to software configuration such as DNS configuration, WINS configuration, the registry etc.

* Duplicate IP Addressing: A common problem in many networking environments occurs when two machines try to use the same IP address. This can result in intermittent communications.

DESIGNING Player 1 creates a match | → | Player 1 starts the match | → | Player 1 invites one or more players to the match | → | Player 1 can make the first move (see notes) | | | | | | ↓ | | Next player in the list can make his/her move | ← | Other players accept or decline the invitation | ← | Other players are notified of the invitation | Skins
When a player is shot, depending on which hit box (the boxes in red) the bullet has reached, a defined amount of damage is removed from his health gauge.
All skins have the exact same set of hit boxes, only the player model differs.
However if you choose the “GIGN” or the “Phoenix Connection” model, because they have a similar overall shape, your opponents might hesitate a fraction of second before shooting when you stand in a dark place.

Weapons OUR game offers a wide range of weapons, each of them having a different firepower, clip capacity, reload time and recoil.
Some guides available provide deep explanations about each of the weapons, better than what I could have ever done.
I will only advise you to try them all out and find your preferred weapons; remember that you might run out of rounds of your favourite weapon and will have to grab a weapon from the first dead body you come across, so a rough knowledge of all the available weapons is needed.
Keep in mind that depending on how far your enemy is, how you shoot should be considered: The further away the enemy is, the more accuracy you will need: shoot slowly. The closer your enemy is, the faster your shots must be, up to the “spray and pray”.

COMMUNICATION
Communication between team members is a key requirement for successful teamwork. The game offers A possible way to communicate during the game: * MANUAL TEXT commands, where the player has to manually input text, which is then displayed onscreen. This consumes precious time, has to be used with lots of care for quick messages, and often results in typos. You might also consider creating key binds to say predefined sentences

MODELINGSetting up the mesh - Start up Blender, add a plane, and set up symmetrical editing.Creating the mouth - start shaping and extruding the mouth.Face and eyes - Keep extruding the face, and add eyes.Finishing the head - Finish off the head.Neck shoulders and arms - Create the upper body by extruding neck, shoulders, and arms.Torso legs and feet - Create the torso and lower body.RiggingUpper body: building the armature - Build a skeleton for the upper body.Upper body: Weight painting - Configure the skeleton for the upper body.Lower body: building the armature and weight painting - Build and configure the skeleton for the lower body.Final rig adjustment. - Make some final improvements to the rig.AnimationAnimating a simple action - Animate a "Wave" action using the Action editor.Animating a walkcycle - Animate a walkcycle using the Action editor.Mixing actions with the NLA - Combine the wave action and the walkcycle action together in the NLA Editor.Facial expressions - Create a set of facial expressions.Adding sound and lip syncing - Use the facial expressions to lip sync to sound.Final animation - Mix everything together into a final animation and render the outputSystem requirements | Minimum | Recommended | Microsoft Windows, Mac, Linux | Operating system | Windows XP | CPU | 500 MHz processor | 800 MHz processor | Memory | 96 MB | 128 MB | Graphics hardware | 16 MB video card | 32 MB video card | Network | Internet connection required for online multiplayer connection | | |

TOOLS USED: * BLENDER * PYTHON * pygame.org - home of the PyGame module and a portal with links to lots of Python games * PyWeek is a bi-annual programming challenge that produces several great games

Requirements Analysis

This phase deals with more intense gathering of systems requirements and involves making sure that these requirements are clearly defined. If the system contains large elements, that require implementation into the software, then these will be the main focus of this phase. The main goal here, being the identification of what the user requirements are, from the system. Identifying the requirements for very large and complex systems, benefit from fact-finding techniques such as background reading, interviews, observation, document sampling and questionnaires. User requirements will be of benefit in the later stages of the lifecycle in regards to developing the criteria for user acceptance testing.

NON FUNCTIONAL

Non-Functional Requirement | Description | | | Availability | As the system is accessible to clients worldwide it | | must be available at all times. | | | Quality | The system fulfills the customer’s expectations by | | |

| conforming to the customer’s requirements of | | gaming online. | | | Reliability | The system is reliable as the required databases and | | servers have a 99.9% guarantee. | | | Scalability | The databases and servers for the system will often | | be required to increase in size due to increasing | | users and usage. For this reason it needs to be easily | | scalable. | | | Usability | As the system is utilized by customers the user | | interface is required to be very user friendly and bug | | free. | | |

USE CASE DIAGRAMS

Authentication

Game Browsing

First Cut of Game Selection Use Case Diagram

Navigation System

Game Hosting

FEATURES

Purpose
A level with purpose draws the player in. It both gives the player a goal, and creates the sense that something is being accomplished above and beyond what the player is doing in that moment.
Motion
Give motion and momentum to your level in both a physical and temporal sense. I 'm referring less to doors, trains and buttons, and more to the motion of consequences. By looking at a level, you should be able to guess what has happened before you arrived, and at least have an inkling of what will happen in the immediate future. Give the player a sense that he is running through a living area, where things happen. Have the map flow smoothly, have one thing lead to another.
Character
This can be used to describe the lighting, the structure, the relative ambiance of a level. The character of a level can determine, and is partly determined by, its purpose and motion.
Know the enemy
The one thing holding you back from making "the perfect level" is the limitation placed upon you by both the engine and by current technology. While designing levels, always be sure to keep track of your levels performance data, and stay within the range you set at the start of your project.

Exaggeration
Regardless of art style, even may that be realistic; exaggerating a specific element in a game can give it more appeal, and have a larger effect on the player. Most things in the real world aren 't questioned for their sometimes odd shape and/or placement. However in a game world, these kinds of objects are.
Multiplayer PC Games — The Way of The Future
Many of the PC games on the market today offer some type of multiplayer capabilities where you can play at home on your LAN or through the Internet in head-to-head deathmatch or competition. It depends on the game itself but some will even have options that allow you to play co-operative multiplayer against other people or computer AI players. The game itself will usually take you step-by-step through the process of configuring your game for multiplayer and offer a way to search for game servers right from the main menu of the game.
Many gamers prefer multiplayer games for the simple fact that these games will generally offer a single-player games plus the multiplayer capabilities add a whole new gameplay and replay value to the game. For those causal gamers out there who aren 't interested in spending money and time on stand-alone multiplayer games, the popularity of Internet game services offers you many choices and a social atmosphere for gaming.
Regardless of the type of game you like to play in today 's ever-changing world of gaming there is no doubt that you can find a multiplayer game suited to you!

REFERENCES(IEEE format)
BOOKS
1) Multiplayer Game Programming by Todd Barron. 2) Massively Multiplayer Game Development 2 (Charles River Media Game Development) (v. 2) by Thor Alexander. 3) Astro Race at the Killer List of Videogames. 4) Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. 5) Parish, Jeremy, The Essential 50: Faceball 2000, 1UP, Accessed April 24, 2009
JOURNALS
1].Aarseth, E. (2001). Computer game studies, year one. Game studies: the international journal of computer game research, 1 (1). http://www.gamestudies.org/0101/

2].Advertisements coming to cs. CS-Nation. Available at http://csnation.net/articles.php/interview_231/ (070228).

3].Arnseth, H.C. “Learning to play or playing to learn – A citical account of the models of communication informing educational research on computer gameplay”, in Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research, vol 6, no. 1 (2006).

4].Barker, C. Cultural Studies and Discourse Analysis. Sage Publications Ltd, London, 2001.

5]. Bertozzi, E. ‘You Play Like a Girl’: Cross Gender Play and the Uneven Playing Field. Submitted to Convergence. Available at: http://facstaff.uww.edu/bertozze/ BertozziPlayGirl.pdf 163

HANDBOOKS 1. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2008. "Designed for or involving more than two (esp. many) players or participants" 2. K. G. Binmore (1994). Game Theory and the Social Contract. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-02444-6. 3. Laszlo Mero, Anna C. Gosi-Greguss, David Kramer (1998). Moral calculations: game theory, logic, and human frailty. New York: Copernicus. ISBN 0-387-98419-4. 4. Simon C. Benjamin and Patrick M. Hayden (13 August 2001). "Multiplayer quantum games". Physical Review A 64 (3): 030301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.64.030301 5. R. Wayne Schmittberger (1992). New Rules for Classic Games. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-53621-0.

References: 4) Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. 5) Parish, Jeremy, The Essential 50: Faceball 2000, 1UP, Accessed April 24, 2009 JOURNALS 1].Aarseth, E. (2001). Computer game studies, year one. 2].Advertisements coming to cs. CS-Nation. Available at http://csnation.net/articles.php/interview_231/ (070228). Research, vol 6, no. 1 (2006). 4].Barker, C. Cultural Studies and Discourse Analysis. Sage Publications Ltd, London, 2001. 1. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2008. "Designed for or involving more than two (esp. many) players or participants" 2 3.  Laszlo Mero, Anna C. Gosi-Greguss, David Kramer (1998). Moral calculations: game theory, logic, and human frailty. New York: Copernicus. ISBN 0-387-98419-4. 4.  Simon C. Benjamin and Patrick M. Hayden (13 August 2001). "Multiplayer quantum games". Physical Review A 64 (3): 030301. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.64.030301 5

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