Starke Rosecrans Hathaway
August 22, 1903 - July 4, 1984
John Charnley McKinley
November 8, 1891 - January 3, 1950
I. History and Development of the Test
a. Biographical Data of the Developer
Starke Rosecrans Hathaway, B.A. (1927) Ohio University, M.A. (1928) Ohio State University, Ph.D. (1932) University of Minnesota.Director of the division of clinical psychology at the University of Minnesota, co-creator of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Starke Hathaway was born on August 22, 1903 in Central Lake, Michigan. He graduated from Ohio University with a bachelor's degree in 1927, and a master’s degree in psychology and statistics in 1928 from the Ohio State University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in psychology and anatomy in 1932.
Hathaway was appointed as lecturer in psychology (1930-1937), assistant professor (1937-1940), associate professor (1940-1947), and professor (1947-1970). He held the position of director of the division of clinical psychology with the University of Minnesota medical school from 1951 until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1970. Starke Hathaway died on July 4, 1984.
His early research was in the field of neurophysiology and for many years taught the anatomy department’s course on that subject. Hathaway was best known for his co-development, with J. C. McKinley, of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), a psychological exam that objectively tests for mental illness and abnormal behavior by evaluating a person's personality traits. Development began in 1937, and it was released in 1940. The MMPI is still one of the most widely used personality inventory tests in the fields of psychology and mental health.
Hathaway’s long list of lifetime achievements includes being recipient of the American Psychological Association’s award for Distinguished Contributions for Applications in Psychology.
John Charnley McKinley was born November 8, 1891 in Duluth, Minnesota. He earned the B.S., A.M., M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Minnesota. There he became assistant professor of neuropathology in 1921, professor of neurology in 1929; he was head of the department of medicine from 1934 to 1943 and of the department of neuropsychiatry thereafter until 1945 when he was incapacitated by illness. He was a Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in Germany in 1928- 29. He was secretary of the State Board of Examiners in Basic Sciences from 1931 till 1946. He was a director of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.
He made important contributions to knowledge in the field of neurotropic virus diseases and in electromyography. His last notable achievement was the development, with his colleagues, of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. He was productive both in neurology and psychiatry. He died on January 3, 1950 after a long illness.
He played a very important part in the years 1919 - 1945 in making the Medical School of the University of Minnesota a leader in medical progress. He stood always for superior scholarship, for high standards and for academic freedom.
b. Development of the Test
Hathaway said the "real impetus" for developing the test came from reports of insulin shock treatments with schizophrenics. Reports of success of the insulin treatment ranged from zero to 100%. Evidently, the hospitals using this treatment did not have an effective way to pick patients who might benefit from the treatment. Hathaway saw a need for an objective diagnostic test that would produce reliable results and allow hospitals to decide who would benefit from particular treatments (Mednick, Higgins, &Kirschenbaum, 1975).
Hathaway and McKinley wanted to design a paper and pencil test that would assess a number of major patterns of personality and emotional...
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