Mining

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Topics: Mining, Water
Environmental studies assignment
Ques 1:
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificiallyin a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum,natural gas, or even water.
The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the mining operations and for years after the mine is closed.

Mining techniques
The two important types of mining are:
1 Surface mining - Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits
2 Underground mining - Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits.

What is Illegal Mining?

One of the main criteria used to define illegal mining is the absence of land rights, mining license, exploration or mineral transportation permit or of any document that could legitimate the on-going operations.
0Illegal mining can be operated in the surface or underground.
Mineral Resources are State Property

It is illegal because in most countries, underground mineral resources belong to the state. Mineral resources can therefore only be operated by a licensed operator along the laws and regulations set by the local government.

IMPACT OF MINING
On humans
Mining can impact local communities both positively and negatively. While positive impacts such as employment and community development projects are important, they do not off-set the potential negatives.
We have found mining can negatively affect people by:

forcing them from their homes and land preventing them from

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