Mini Paper Punishment Philosophy

Topics: Prison, Punishment, Penology Pages: 7 (1104 words) Published: November 21, 2014


Punishment Philosophy
Liberty University

Abstract
The penalties or punishment in the realm of corrections reflect the philosophies and ethics of civilizations and the governments that sanction implementation. Historically corrections were grounded in “retribution and punishment- and the uglier the better”; “punishments were public occasions and street spectacles “filled with humiliation (Esperian, 2010). Then in the Nineteenth Century there was the rise of the penitentiary and was designated lawbreakers a confined place to contemplate on the transgressions committed, by repenting and preparing for life outside confinement, to be law-abiding citizens of society (Esperian , 2010). Today punishment in corrections considers concepts such as retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, and vengeance; therein implementations of different models of correctional philosophies, such as the justice model, the medical model, and the custodial model, have developed (Hebrews 13:3). All theories for the field of corrections are grounded in rehabilitative resources to help and guide offenders in gaining a fruitful life (Isaiah 43:18)

Punishment Philosophy
Punishment is the “penalty inflicted on an offender through judicial procedure” (Merriam-Webster, 2004). The penalties or punishment in the realm of corrections reflect the philosophies and ethics of civilizations and the governments that sanction implementation. Historically corrections were grounded in “retribution and punishment- and the uglier the better”; “punishments were public occasions and street spectacles “filled with humiliation (Esperian, 2010). Then in the Nineteenth Century there was the rise of the penitentiary and was designated lawbreakers a confined place to contemplate on the transgressions committed, by repenting and preparing for life outside confinement, to be law-abiding citizens of society (Esperian , 2010). Today punishment in corrections considers concepts such as retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, vengeance, etc.; therein implementations of different models of correctional philosophies, such as the justice model, the medical model, and the custodial model, have developed. The models include and overlap in some theories, yet the primary goal of all correctional models is to prevent further crime from occurring or rehabilitation along with lower recidivism in the system (Seiter, 2005) (1 John 1:9 New International Version). Justice Model

The justice model of punishment theory proposed in 1975 by David Fogel, who was a liberal former correctional official. David Fogel (1975) “argued that treatments in prisons were a myth, parole board discretion was unpredictable and unfair to the inmates” (Seiter, 2005, p. 166). The justice model rooted in retributive theory that holds offenders accountable for actions, keeping convicted offenders isolated from the society of the law-abiding, and making the offender serve “hard time” (Mackenzie, 2001) (Barton, 2012). Fogel (1975) thought his ideas would ensure that offenders’ received just what they deserved. To accomplish his justice model prisons would return to the flat determinate sentencing, with procedures and rules to limit sentence discretion. The parole boards and parole agencies entirely eliminated, and all treatment programs for rehabilitation would be strictly voluntary, (Barton, 2012) (Seiter, 2005, p. 166) (Galatians 6:7). Medical Model

The medical model of punishment theory suggested that “offenders were sick, inflicted with problems that caused their criminality and needed treatment. Introducing rehabilitative treatment would treat and resolve the offenders’ problems and prepare them for release into the community to be productive and crime free” (Seiter, 2005, p. 23). Under the 14th amendment to the United States Constitution, the federal courts were inundated with appeals by inmates to improve the...

References: Barton, A. (2012, August 1). Just deserts theory. Retrieved from Encyclopedia of Prisons & Correctional Facilities: http://www.sagepub.com/hanserintro/study/materials/reference/ref3.1.pdf
Esperian , J. H. (2010, December). The effect of prison education programs on recidivism . Journal of Correctional Education, 61(4), 316-334. Retrieved July 2014, from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA345617852&v=2.1&u=vic_liberty&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=cd6fb63c1b476073983acfb66c593b5c
Mackenzie, D. L. (2001, July). Sentencing and corrections in the 21st century: setting the stage for the future. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/189106-2.pdf
MacNamara, D. E. (2006). The medical model in corrections. Criminology, 14(4), 439-448. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1977.tb00036.x
McWhorter, R. L. (2010). Punishment. Salem Health: Psychology & Mental Health, IV, 1563-1566. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2275200464&v=2.1&u=vic_liberty&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w&asid=184cd16bb595f9d0b96c22fca2e01642
Merriam-Webster. (2004). punishment. Retrieved from Merriam-Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/punishment
Seiter, R. P. (2005). Corrections: an introduction (Fourth ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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