FOMT 1.2: Forest-Related Development and Land Use Policy
Seminar Topic: Migrations and effects on Rural Development - A Case of Ghana
Supervisor: Prof. Jurgen Pretzch
Ataa- Asantewaa Martha
(Student of M.Sc. Tropical Forestry and Management)
Submitted to the Institute for International Forestry and Forest Products, Faculty of Forest-Geo-and-Hydro Sciences, TU Dresden
Migration continues to dominate discussion on both social and political platforms in recent times owing to its anticipated role in development and globalization. Ghana, a major fore runner in both demographic and social-economic issues, has a long history of migration. In this paper, the dynamics of Ghana’s migration is critically reviewed detailing the cause factors, history as well as its impact on rural development.
3.0 Research Questions and Methodology
4.0 Literature Review
4.1 History of Ghana’s migration; The Pattern
4.2 Migration in Ghana: The impetus.
4.3 Migrant dynamics
4.4 Positive impact of migration
4.5 Negative impact of migration
Migration is an old phenomenon with increasing complexity. Its origin predates the arrival of first human race. However, with time, the scale of migration has assumed a new dimension and dynamism making it a defining development and globalization issue dominating both political and socio-economic platforms, the world over (Awumbila et al, 2008, Vargas-Lundius et al, 2008). In Ghana, migration persists in dynamic and complex ways as in other regions across Africa and elsewhere with its historical precedence. Mobility within and outside Ghana has been traced back to pre-colonial times and it is currently directed more towards a surviving strategy. However, the impetus for migration remains complex to define as it varies greatly at the individual and locality levels. Migration in Ghana during early times had been much prompted by trade, agriculture activities, ethnic ties, ethnic conflicts and economic and social disparities between the north and south. Political instability, severe economic hardships and growing backwash effect of failed regional dualism are the more recent additions to the impetus for migrating (Anarfi et al, 2003, Twumasi-Ankrah1995). The area of great change as history proceeds are perhaps aspects related to migrant in terms of volume and destination (Boahen 1975, Addae-Mensah 1983, Anarfi et al 2003). Today, 56 per cent of Ghanaians are said to be internal migrants with majority of them migrating to rural localities (GLSS 5). According to a 2008 report by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ghanaians are doted around some 33 countries around the globe amounting to some 1.5 million (Boahen 2005) to 3 million (Black et al 2003) in population with 71 per cent residing in the West African sub-region(Quartey 2009). Migration, whether internal or international, has a significant capacity to modifying cultural, social, traditional and economic fibers of rural societies and as such recognized as a major force for development and poverty reduction. Remittances and its spending effects, modernization, labour replacement, chain migration and insurance are but routes of migration in development. Nevertheless, negative impacts of migration such as brain drain, compromise in agricultural development, food insecurity, unemployment, and the nefarious scenes that migration creates in cities are much to worry about (Lucas 2007, Twumasi-Ankrah 1995, Vargas-Lundius et al 2008) 2.0 Objectives
This paper therefore seeks to understand the route of migration in rural development by examining the dynamism in its history. Specific objectives:
* Identify the push and pull factors
* Examine the dynamics of Ghanaian migration
* Identify the links between migration and rural...
References: Ababio, O. 1999. Gold Mining in Adansi, Precolonial and Modern. Department of History. Legon: University of Ghana.
Abdulai, A. 1999. ‘International Migration and Agricultural Development in Ghana.’ Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives 18(1): 61-74.
Addae-Mensah, J. (1983). ‘Labour Force Migration in Ghana: The Case of Migrant Farmers in the Western Region (with special reference to farmers in Wassa-Amenfi District)’. Unpublished thesis submitted to the University of Ghana, Legon.
Africanus, L. 1896. The History and Description of Africa. London, Hakluyt Society Publications.
Anarfi, J. K. 1982. International Labour Migration in West Africa: A Case Study of the Ghanaian Migrants in Lagos, Nigeria. Accra: Regional Institute for Population Studies; Legon:University of Ghana.
Black, R. king R., Tiemoko R. 2003. Migration, Return and Small Enterprise Development in Ghana: A Route Out of Poverty? Sussex Migration Working Paper no.9, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
Black, R., R. Tiemoko, et al. 2003. International migration, remittances and poverty: the case of Ghana and Côte d 'Ivoire. Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex.
Boahen, A. A. 1966. Topics in West African History. London: Longman.
Boahen, A. A. 1975. Ghana: Evolution and Change in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. London: Longman.
Clapperton, H. 1929. ‘Journal of Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa.’ London: John Murray.
Docquier, F. and A. Marfouk 2006 “International migration by educational attainment (1990-2000)”, in C. Ozden and M. Schiff (Eds), International Migration, Remittances and Development, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
Ghana Statistical Service, 2002. 2000 Population and Housing Census Report. GSS, Accra, March 2002
Ghana Statistical Service 2005b Population Data Analysis Report, Vol
Ghana Statistical Service, 2011. 2010 Population and Housing Census, Provisional Result, GSS, Accra, February 2011.
Ghana Business News (GNA): indiscriminate bush burning becoming acceptable norm in Ghana? www. Ghanabusinessnews.com. Accessed Saturday March 3rd, 2012
Hill, P. 1963. The Migrant Cocoa Farmers of Southern Ghana: A Study in Rural Capitalism. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Kapital FM New: Agogo youth reject resettlement of Fulani. www.kapital971.com/new. Accessed Saturday March 3rd, 2012
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Ghana 2008 Ghanaian Citizens Who Have Registered with Foreign Missions,Unpublished report.
Nabila, J. S. 1986. ‘Rural Migration and its Implications for Rural Development in Ghana’ in Brown, C.K. (ed) Rural Development in Ghana. Accra: Ghana Universities Press. 75-89.
Quartey, P. and T. Blankson (2004). ‘Do Migrant Remittances Minimize the Impact of Macro-volatility on the Poor in Ghana?’ G. D. N. (GDN), Global Development Network (GDN): 32.
Rimmer, D. 1993 Staying Poor: Ghana’s Political Economy 1950-1990, Pergamon, Oxford.
Tsegai, Daniel. 2004. Effects of migration on the source communities in the Volta Basin of Ghana: Potential links of
migration, remittances, farm and non-farm self-employment activities
Twumasi-Ankrah, K. (1995) Rural-urban migration and socioeconomic development in Ghana: some discussions. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 1995; 10(2):13-22.
Twum-Baah, K.A. 2005 “Volume and characteristics of international Ghanaian migration”,
Edited by Takyiwaa Manuh, At Home in the World? International Migration and Development in Contemporary Ghana and West Africa, Sub-Saharan Publishers, Accra (Ghana), pp
Van Hear, N. 1998. New Diasporas: The Mass Exodus, Dispersal and Regrouping of Migrant Communities. UCL Press, London
Vargas-Lundius R., Lanly G., Vilarreal M., Osorio M.2008
Please join StudyMode to read the full document