. Reasons of Migration
It would never be an easy decision for a person to leave his country of birth and look for his fortune elsewhere. There are a number of reasons why migrants leave their countries. These so-called push factors exist in the poorer or conflict-weary regions of the world and some of them are defined as:
• dissolution and disintegration of multicultural states, accompanied by religious and ethnic conflicts;
• increase in natural disasters, the progressive destruction of major ecosystems and the associated global warming as a result of the industrial economic system (environmental refugees);
• discrimination on various grounds;
• political instability and wars, continuing armed conflicts (including civil wars); • economic situation;
• uncontrollable population growth; vast differences in population and economic growth;
• impoverishment, as a result of failing social welfare systems (EUROPOL, 2004).
In turn, there are accompanying pull factors that make some countries target for migrants:
• shortage of manpower;
• comprehensive social security;
• positive economic situation;
• democratic systems of government, political and social stability; • historical links;
• common languages;
• existing communities;
• expectations (EUROPOL, 2004).
There are a number of reasons of migration. For instance Castles defines migration taking place due to environmental degradation and explores links between environment, conflict and displacement (Castles, 2002). However when the push factors are examined, it can be seen that they can be grouped crudely under two categories, that are, political and economic reasons of migration. Reasons of migration have come to. This distinction came to clarify various categories of migrants and responsibilities of the host states towards these migrants. When it comes to economic migrants, it can be argued that the individual host states have had a higher leverage in the face of international community in terms of deciding when and to what extend open their borders to economic migrants. The guest worker program that was adopted by some West European states in the 1960s and the 1970s are a good indication of this. When the guest worker program served its purposes, host states could terminate the program single handedly. On the other hand, in the case of migrants fleeing their countries for political reasons an international consensus emerged that constrained state actions.
Migration is a global phenomenon. It is seen in all geographies, among all societies and throughout all ages. Throughout history, people migrated from one place to another for various reasons: either for economical reasons (famine, floods, merchandising, etc.), political reasons (wars, conquers, deportations, etc.) and other reasons (diseases, ecological changes, earthquakes, etc.) Thus, it can be argued that people have many motivations to migrate. However, when we talk about immigration it is much more of a complex issue. Immigration is related to borders, border controls, political sovereignty over people's movements. Immigration occurs when people migrates from one country to another. This migration is not always voluntary. Sometimes, people feel the need to immigrate or cannot return to their homelands due to reasons imposed on them. Millions of people are forced to leave their home countries because of persecutions and fear of persecution which is caused by wars, armed conflicts, regime changes and etc. Those people seek asylum for a better life in other countries.
The European Union, which sets a model and standards for many countries on their way to democratic development, is also an important model for the development of asylum and immigration policies. The Union is trying to create a common asylum and immigration policy area for the whole member states to adopt and apply for the sake of security. However, the issue is related to border control and territorial sovereignty and...
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