Migration

Topics: Demography, Population, Total fertility rate Pages: 12 (3132 words) Published: June 24, 2013
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Why PoPulation Matters to Migration anD Urbanization
People are moving from place to place more than ever before. Rates of international migration are increasing, and more than half of the world’s population now lives in cities.1 Many personal, economic, and environmental factors drive migration, and the pressures of population growth often contribute to individuals’ decisions to move. Improving the status of women through increased access to reproductive health care in rural and urban areas can affect migration and urbanization trends by reducing demand for public services and increasing employment and economic opportunities.

the State of Migration and Urbanization In 2010, more than 200 million people—about 3 percent of the world’s population—lived in a country different from the one in which they were born, and internal migration within countries continues at high levels.2 International migrants, who may move permanently or temporarily to another country, are equally likely to be men or women.3 About 10 percent of the population of developed countries is comprised of international migrants, who commonly migrate for economic reasons. Less than 10 percent of international migrants are refugees from conflict.4 Nearly half of those who move from developing countries reside in other developing countries, usually one that shares a border.5 Australia/New Zealand and other Pacific countries, North America and Western Europe have the greatest share of international migrants within their populations, while Polynesia and Central America see the greatest share of their residents migrate abroad.6 Migration is often equated with international movement, but migration within countries, primarily from rural to urban areas, accounts for

a much greater share of the movement within human populations than international migration. As of 2009, more than half of the world’s population lived in urban areas. Urbanization is commonly associated with mega-cities (cities with over 10 million inhabitants), but the majority

of the world’s urban population lives in cities with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants.7 The United Nations Population Division projects that the global urban population will almost double from 3.5 to 6.3 billion by 2050 (Figure 1), assuming that fertility rates decline

FIGURE 1: Urbanization Continues Across All Regions

North America and Latin America projected to remain most urbanized despite highest urban growth rate in Asia and Africa 100 World 80 Africa Asia Europe 40 Latin America and the Caribbean Central America Northern America 0 1 0 95 1 0 96 70 80 90 00 10 20 30 40 50 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 Year

Source: United Nations Population Division. 2010. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision. New York: UN Population Division.

Urban (%)

60

20

Oceania

Year se eDucatIon & labor Poverty fooD securIty MIgratIon & urbanIzatIon securIty clIMate cHange bIoDIversIty forest ange bIoDIversIty forests Water Maternal HealtH InfectIous DIsease eDucatIon & labor Poverty fooD securIty MIgr overty fooD securIty MIgratIon & urbanIzatIon securIty clIMate cHange bIoDIversIty forests Water Maternal Healt

FIGURE 2: Oceania, Northern America and Europe Have Highest Share of International Migrants 18 16.8 14.2 16 14...

Links: Tel: +202.557.3400 I Fax: +202.728.4177 I wwww.populationaction.org I Email: pai@popact.org
© Population Action International, 2011
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