top-rated free essay

Mid Late Childhood

By Mehreenkhan6m6Ou Jan 05, 2015 791 Words
MIDDLE AND LATE
CHILDHOOD

Body growth and proportion
• The period of middle and late childhood
involves slow, consistent growth. During this
period, children grow an average of 2 to 3
inches a year.
• Muscle mass and strength gradually increase.
• Among the most pronounced changes are
decreases in head circumference, and leg
length in relation to body height.

Motor development
• Motor dev becomes much smoother and
more coordinated.
• Children gain greater control over their bodies
and can sit and attend for longer periods of
time.
• Their lives should be activity-oriented and very
active.

• Increased myelination of the CNS is reflected
in improved motor skills.
• Improved fine motor skills appear in the form
of handwriting development.
• Boys are usually better at gross motor skills,
girls at fine motor skills.

Children with disabilities
Learning disabilities
• A disability that involves
– having normal intelligence or above
– having difficulties in at least one academic area
and usually several
– having no other problem or disorder, such as
mental retardation, that can be determined as
causing the difficulty.

• The most common learning disability in
children involves reading.
• Dyslexia is a severe impairment in the ability
to read and spell.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
• A disability in which children consistently show
problems in one or more of these areas:
– Inattention
– Hyperactivity
– Impulsivity

• Many experts recommend a combination of
academic, behavioral and medical interventions to
help students with ADHD learn and adapt more
effectively

Cognitive
Development

Piaget’s Theory
• Concrete operational thought involves
operations, conservation and classification
• Classification is the ability to divide and
classify things into different sets or subsets
and to consider their interrelationships.

Information Processing
• Long-term memory increases
• Control processes, also called strategies, can
be used by children to improve their memory.

Extremes of Intelligence
Mental retardation
Involves low IQ and problems in adapting to
everyday life
Giftedness
Having above average intelligence and/or
superior talent for something

Language
Development

Vocabulary and grammar
• Children become more analytical and logical in their approach to words and grammar
Bilingualism
• Bilingual education aims to teach academic subjects to
children in one language, while gradually adding instructions in another language.
• It does not interfere with performance in either language • It has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development. • Success in learning a second language is greater in childhood than in adolescence.

The Self and
Emotional Development

The Self
• The internal self, the social self and the socially
comparative self become more prominent in
middle and late childhood
• Self esteem becomes important
• Four ways to increase children’s self esteem:
– Identification of the causes of low self esteem
– Emotional support and social approval
– Achievement
– Coping

• Industry vs. inferiority
Erikson’s fourth stage ……..

Emotional Development
• Increased understanding of such complex
emotions as pride and shame
• Understanding that more than one emotion
can be experienced in a particular situation
• Taking into account the causes of emotional
reactions
• Improved ability to suppress and conceal
emotions

Moral Development
• Kohlberg developed a theory of moral
reasoning with 3 levels. Movement towards
next stage is possible because of increased
internalization.
• Internalization is the developmental change
from behavior that is externally controlled to
behavior that is controlled by internal
standards and principles.

• Level 1-Preconventional reasoning: the individual shows no internalization of moral values; moral reasoning is
controlled by external rewards and punishments.
• Level 2-Conventional Reasoning: individuals abide by
certain standards (internal), but they are the standards
of others (external), such as parents or the laws of
society.
• Level 3-Postconventional reasoning: highest level in
which morality is completely internalized.
• There are many criticisms on his theory.

Families
• Parents spend less time with children during
middle and late childhood, including less time
in caregiving, instruction, reading, talking and
playing.
• Parents are still powerful and important
socializing agents.
• New parent-child issues emerge, and
discipline changes.

• Children in divorced and stepfamilies have
comparatively more adjustment problems.

Peers
Peer statuses
• Popular children - frequently nominated as a best friend - rarely disliked by their peers.
• Neglected children - infrequently nominated as a best
friend - not disliked by their peers.
• Rejected children – infrequently nominated as a best
friend – actively disliked by peers.
• Controversial children – frequently nominated both as
someone’s best friend and as being disliked.
Rejected children are at risk for a number of problems.

Friendships








Children’s friendships serve six functions:
Companionship
Stimulation
Physical support
Ego support
Social comparison
Intimacy/affection

Bullying
• Significant numbers of children are bullied.
• This can result in short-term and long-term
negative effects for the victim.

Schools
• Serves as a small society in which there are tasks
to be accomplished, people to be socialized and
socialized by, and rules that define and limit
behavior.
• Children in poverty face barriers to their learning.
• Schools in low-income neighborhoods have fewer
resources
• Ethnicity issues prevail for which teachers should
encourage inter-ethnic contacts and interactions.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Childhood

    ...EYMP1: Context and principles for early years provision 1.1. Explain the legal status and principles of the relevant early years framework/s, and how national and local guidance materials are used in settings. (Relevant early years framework: This refers to the frameworks for early years provision used within the relevant UK Home Nation.)...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...The following questions can be written answers for your Certificate. Please complete the questions which your assessor has asked you to complete. Unit 006 Contribute to the Support of Child and Young Person Development Outcome 1: 2. Identify different observation methods and know why they are used. Additional Guidance: Different observati...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...CYPOP36 CYPCore36-1.1 Explain the importance of multi-agency working and integrated working Multi-agency helps to meet the needs of children, their parents or carers, different services, agencies, teams of professionals and other practitioners will work together to provide the services that a child or their family may need. Multi-agency workin...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...Monika Lukasik 2013 Holistic development from 1-19 years Monika Lukasik 2013 Holistic development from 1-19 years It is very important to keep in mind that every child and young person is unique. By looking at the holistic development of children and young people, we can view the whole person-physically, emocionally, intellectually. ...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...Past childhood memories in India! | अपना भारत 8/7/2014 Home About me About this Blog Dharma (Religion + Universal Law) ← Are Indians in India coward and foolish? Freedom Team of India Transforming India Is “भारत” falling apart? → Past childhood memories in India! Posted on March 17, ...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...3.1 describe the different transitions children and young people may experience. Moving away This could make the child or young person frustrated because they are being turn away from their favourite place or even their friends, when a child or young person moves away he or she may feel lost or scared. Lonely or even anxious this could po...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...have ideas about childhood changed over the centuries? New concepts of childhood have been established to an enormous extent over the centuries. Over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries people have had different ideas of childhood and how children should be raised. On the contrary, as society has developed, perceptions about childhood h...

    Read More
  • Childhood

    ...here to talk about childhood. What is childhood? According to science, childhood is “the stage before puberty” or, to be more specific, “the state of a child between infancy and adulthood.” But childhood is so much more than a concrete reality defined by literal terms. It is an abstract concept. If, right now, I say that I have never...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.