Body growth and proportion
• The period of middle and late childhood
involves slow, consistent growth. During this
period, children grow an average of 2 to 3
inches a year.
• Muscle mass and strength gradually increase.
• Among the most pronounced changes are
decreases in head circumference, and leg
length in relation to body height.
• Motor dev becomes much smoother and
• Children gain greater control over their bodies
and can sit and attend for longer periods of
• Their lives should be activity-oriented and very
• Increased myelination of the CNS is reflected
in improved motor skills.
• Improved fine motor skills appear in the form
of handwriting development.
• Boys are usually better at gross motor skills,
girls at fine motor skills.
Children with disabilities
• A disability that involves
– having normal intelligence or above
– having difficulties in at least one academic area
and usually several
– having no other problem or disorder, such as
mental retardation, that can be determined as
causing the difficulty.
• The most common learning disability in
children involves reading.
• Dyslexia is a severe impairment in the ability
to read and spell.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
• A disability in which children consistently show
problems in one or more of these areas:
• Many experts recommend a combination of
academic, behavioral and medical interventions to
help students with ADHD learn and adapt more
• Concrete operational thought involves
operations, conservation and classification
• Classification is the ability to divide and
classify things into different sets or subsets
and to consider their interrelationships.
• Long-term memory increases
• Control processes, also called strategies, can
be used by children to improve their memory.
Extremes of Intelligence
Involves low IQ and problems in adapting to
Having above average intelligence and/or
superior talent for something
Vocabulary and grammar
• Children become more analytical and logical in their approach to words and grammar
• Bilingual education aims to teach academic subjects to
children in one language, while gradually adding instructions in another language.
• It does not interfere with performance in either language • It has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development. • Success in learning a second language is greater in childhood than in adolescence.
The Self and
• The internal self, the social self and the socially
comparative self become more prominent in
middle and late childhood
• Self esteem becomes important
• Four ways to increase children’s self esteem:
– Identification of the causes of low self esteem
– Emotional support and social approval
• Industry vs. inferiority
Erikson’s fourth stage ……..
• Increased understanding of such complex
emotions as pride and shame
• Understanding that more than one emotion
can be experienced in a particular situation
• Taking into account the causes of emotional
• Improved ability to suppress and conceal
• Kohlberg developed a theory of moral
reasoning with 3 levels. Movement towards
next stage is possible because of increased
• Internalization is the developmental change
from behavior that is externally controlled to
behavior that is controlled by internal
standards and principles.
• Level 1-Preconventional reasoning: the individual shows no internalization of moral values; moral reasoning is
controlled by external rewards and punishments.
• Level 2-Conventional Reasoning: individuals abide by
certain standards (internal), but they are the standards
of others (external), such as parents or the laws of
• Level 3-Postconventional reasoning: highest level in
which morality is completely internalized.
• There are many criticisms on his theory.
• Parents spend less time with children during
middle and late childhood, including less time
in caregiving, instruction, reading, talking and
• Parents are still powerful and important
• New parent-child issues emerge, and
• Children in divorced and stepfamilies have
comparatively more adjustment problems.
• Popular children - frequently nominated as a best friend - rarely disliked by their peers.
• Neglected children - infrequently nominated as a best
friend - not disliked by their peers.
• Rejected children – infrequently nominated as a best
friend – actively disliked by peers.
• Controversial children – frequently nominated both as
someone’s best friend and as being disliked.
Rejected children are at risk for a number of problems.
Children’s friendships serve six functions:
• Significant numbers of children are bullied.
• This can result in short-term and long-term
negative effects for the victim.
• Serves as a small society in which there are tasks
to be accomplished, people to be socialized and
socialized by, and rules that define and limit
• Children in poverty face barriers to their learning.
• Schools in low-income neighborhoods have fewer
• Ethnicity issues prevail for which teachers should
encourage inter-ethnic contacts and interactions.