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Mid Late Childhood

By Mehreenkhan6m6Ou Jan 05, 2015 791 Words

Body growth and proportion
• The period of middle and late childhood
involves slow, consistent growth. During this
period, children grow an average of 2 to 3
inches a year.
• Muscle mass and strength gradually increase.
• Among the most pronounced changes are
decreases in head circumference, and leg
length in relation to body height.

Motor development
• Motor dev becomes much smoother and
more coordinated.
• Children gain greater control over their bodies
and can sit and attend for longer periods of
• Their lives should be activity-oriented and very

• Increased myelination of the CNS is reflected
in improved motor skills.
• Improved fine motor skills appear in the form
of handwriting development.
• Boys are usually better at gross motor skills,
girls at fine motor skills.

Children with disabilities
Learning disabilities
• A disability that involves
– having normal intelligence or above
– having difficulties in at least one academic area
and usually several
– having no other problem or disorder, such as
mental retardation, that can be determined as
causing the difficulty.

• The most common learning disability in
children involves reading.
• Dyslexia is a severe impairment in the ability
to read and spell.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
• A disability in which children consistently show
problems in one or more of these areas:
– Inattention
– Hyperactivity
– Impulsivity

• Many experts recommend a combination of
academic, behavioral and medical interventions to
help students with ADHD learn and adapt more


Piaget’s Theory
• Concrete operational thought involves
operations, conservation and classification
• Classification is the ability to divide and
classify things into different sets or subsets
and to consider their interrelationships.

Information Processing
• Long-term memory increases
• Control processes, also called strategies, can
be used by children to improve their memory.

Extremes of Intelligence
Mental retardation
Involves low IQ and problems in adapting to
everyday life
Having above average intelligence and/or
superior talent for something


Vocabulary and grammar
• Children become more analytical and logical in their approach to words and grammar
• Bilingual education aims to teach academic subjects to
children in one language, while gradually adding instructions in another language.
• It does not interfere with performance in either language • It has a positive effect on children’s cognitive development. • Success in learning a second language is greater in childhood than in adolescence.

The Self and
Emotional Development

The Self
• The internal self, the social self and the socially
comparative self become more prominent in
middle and late childhood
• Self esteem becomes important
• Four ways to increase children’s self esteem:
– Identification of the causes of low self esteem
– Emotional support and social approval
– Achievement
– Coping

• Industry vs. inferiority
Erikson’s fourth stage ……..

Emotional Development
• Increased understanding of such complex
emotions as pride and shame
• Understanding that more than one emotion
can be experienced in a particular situation
• Taking into account the causes of emotional
• Improved ability to suppress and conceal

Moral Development
• Kohlberg developed a theory of moral
reasoning with 3 levels. Movement towards
next stage is possible because of increased
• Internalization is the developmental change
from behavior that is externally controlled to
behavior that is controlled by internal
standards and principles.

• Level 1-Preconventional reasoning: the individual shows no internalization of moral values; moral reasoning is
controlled by external rewards and punishments.
• Level 2-Conventional Reasoning: individuals abide by
certain standards (internal), but they are the standards
of others (external), such as parents or the laws of
• Level 3-Postconventional reasoning: highest level in
which morality is completely internalized.
• There are many criticisms on his theory.

• Parents spend less time with children during
middle and late childhood, including less time
in caregiving, instruction, reading, talking and
• Parents are still powerful and important
socializing agents.
• New parent-child issues emerge, and
discipline changes.

• Children in divorced and stepfamilies have
comparatively more adjustment problems.

Peer statuses
• Popular children - frequently nominated as a best friend - rarely disliked by their peers.
• Neglected children - infrequently nominated as a best
friend - not disliked by their peers.
• Rejected children – infrequently nominated as a best
friend – actively disliked by peers.
• Controversial children – frequently nominated both as
someone’s best friend and as being disliked.
Rejected children are at risk for a number of problems.


Children’s friendships serve six functions:
Physical support
Ego support
Social comparison

• Significant numbers of children are bullied.
• This can result in short-term and long-term
negative effects for the victim.

• Serves as a small society in which there are tasks
to be accomplished, people to be socialized and
socialized by, and rules that define and limit
• Children in poverty face barriers to their learning.
• Schools in low-income neighborhoods have fewer
• Ethnicity issues prevail for which teachers should
encourage inter-ethnic contacts and interactions.

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