Microsoft Corporation is a multinational company based in Redmond Washington. The company manufactures computer products and offer computer services. The company also licenses and supports various types of computer products and services. Microsoft Corporation was founded in 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. The company is the largest software manufacturer globally in terms of revenue. It is also the most valuable organization in the world. Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded the company to manufacture basic interpreters for Altair 8800 and sell them. The company was the leader in the personal computer operating market in mid 1980s with MS DOS. The development of the Microsoft windows operating system gave the organization a competitive edge in the market. The organization has diversified its target markets since 1990 by acquiring various companies. Microsoft Corporation acquired Skype technologies at $8.5 billion in 2001. This was the largest acquisition that the company has ever made. The company is the leader in the PC operating system market and office suite market today. The organization has expanded into other sectors such as internet search using the Bing search engine. In addition, it has ventured into the videogame sector using the Xbox console and X box. The company also operates in the digital service sector and mobile phone industry by providing MSN services and Windows phone operating system (Microsoft, 2012). The company has performed excellently financially since its establishment in 1975. The organization recorded $73.72 billion as revenue in 2012. It also recorded $21.76 billion and $16.97 billion as operating income and net income respectively in 2012 (Hildebrand, 2007). The internal and external environment of the organization has an impact on the organizational performance. For instance, technology and organizational culture have an effect on the organization as they affect its performance. Understanding the internal and external environment is essential for the success of Microsoft Corporation as it enables managers to identify organizational strength and weaknesses and develop strategies to overcome them. Different organizational theory perspectives can be used to examine the organization. That is modernism and symbolic interpretivism perspectives. The perspectives differ in terms of ontology and epistemology. Symbolic interpretivism enables one to get first hand information by being part of the company while modernism does not. Modernism perspective is based on modern theories such as technical systems theory, contingency theory and general system theory. The theories explain management styles used in organizations and design. Microsoft Corporation was observed using symbolic interpretivism and modernism perspectives. The culture of the company and its ability to change was studied. It will also evaluate conflict management, roles, goals and technology (Hatch, 1997). Discussion
Ontology and epistemology
Ontology is concerned with reality. Epistemology is aimed at determining how people generate knowledge and different bad and good knowledge. Symbolic interpretivism, modernism and post modernism perspectives differ in terms of ontology and epistemology. Symbolic interpretivists have extended the definition of reality to incorporate kinds of experience that are found outside the five senses. Their definition includes emotions and intuitions. This has made it hard to replicate their definition of reality. Researchers using the symbolic interpretivism perspective want to be true to their personal experiences and respect explanations given by other people. Symbolic interpretivism focuses on meaning and understanding as it happens in a certain situation. Thus, the findings obtained are not generalized outside the context in which they were generated. Symbolic interpretive researchers and modernist researchers differ greatly in terms of research methodology. Modernists believe that...
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