microeconimics

Topics: Supply and demand, Economic surplus, Price elasticity of demand Pages: 32 (7597 words) Published: April 21, 2014
Chapter 7
Problems and Applications

1.If an early freeze in California sours the lemon crop, the supply curve for lemons shifts to the left, as shown in Figure 5. The result is a rise in the price of lemons and a decline in consumer surplus from A + B + C to just A. So consumer surplus declines by the amount B + C.

Figure 5

In the market for lemonade, the higher cost of lemons reduces the supply of lemonade, as shown in Figure 6. The result is a rise in the price of lemonade and a decline in consumer surplus from D + E + F to just D, a loss of E + F. Note that an event that affects consumer surplus in one market often has effects on consumer surplus in other markets.

Figure 6

2.A rise in the demand for French bread leads to an increase in producer surplus in the market for French bread, as shown in Figure 7. The shift of the demand curve leads to an increased price, which increases producer surplus from area A to area A + B + C.

Figure 7

The increased quantity of French bread being sold increases the demand for flour, as shown in Figure 8. As a result, the price of flour rises, increasing producer surplus from area D to D + E + F. Note that an event that affects producer surplus in one market leads to effects on producer surplus in related markets.

Figure 8

3.a.Bert’s demand schedule is:

Price
Quantity Demanded
More than $7
0
$5 to $7
1
$3 to $5
2
$1 to $3
3
$1 or less
4

Bert’s demand curve is shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9

b.When the price of a bottle of water is $4, Bert buys two bottles of water. His consumer surplus is shown as area A in the figure. He values his first bottle of water at $7, but pays only $4 for it, so has consumer surplus of $3. He values his second bottle of water at $5, but pays only $4 for it, so has consumer surplus of $1. Thus Bert’s total consumer surplus is $3 + $1 = $4, which is the area of A in the figure.

c.When the price of a bottle of water falls from $4 to $2, Bert buys three bottles of water, an increase of one. His consumer surplus consists of both areas A and B in the figure, an increase in the amount of area B. He gets consumer surplus of $5 from the first bottle ($7 value minus $2 price), $3 from the second bottle ($5 value minus $2 price), and $1 from the third bottle ($3 value minus $2 price), for a total consumer surplus of $9. Thus consumer surplus rises by $5 (which is the size of area B) when the price of a bottle of water falls from $4 to $2.

4.a.Ernie’s supply schedule for water is:

Price
Quantity Supplied
More than $7
4
$5 to $7
3
$3 to $5
2
$1 to $3
1
Less than $1
0

Ernie’s supply curve is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10

b.When the price of a bottle of water is $4, Ernie sells two bottles of water. His producer surplus is shown as area A in the figure. He receives $4 for his first bottle of water, but it costs only $1 to produce, so Ernie has producer surplus of $3. He also receives $4 for his second bottle of water, which costs $3 to produce, so he has producer surplus of $1. Thus Ernie’s total producer surplus is $3 + $1 = $4, which is the area of A in the figure.

c.When the price of a bottle of water rises from $4 to $6, Ernie sells three bottles of water, an increase of one. His producer surplus consists of both areas A and B in the figure, an increase by the amount of area B. He gets producer surplus of $5 from the first bottle ($6 price minus $1 cost), $3 from the second bottle ($6 price minus $3 cost), and $1 from the third bottle ($6 price minus $5 price), for a total producer surplus of $9. Thus producer surplus rises by $5 (which is the size of area B) when the price of a bottle of water rises from $4 to $6.

5.a.From Ernie’s supply schedule and Bert’s demand schedule, the quantity demanded and supplied are:

Price
Quantity Supplied
Quantity Demanded
$2
1
3
$4
2
2
$6
3
1

Only a price of $4 brings supply and demand into...
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