Microcontrollers

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Topics: Ultrasound, Distance
ABSTRACT
Ultrasonic range finder using 8051
A simple ultrasonic range finder using 8051 microcontroller is presented in this project. This ultrasonic rangefinder can measure distances up to 2.5 meters at an accuracy of 1 centi meter. AT89s51 microcontroller and the ultrasonic transducer module HC-SR04 forms the basis of this circuit. The ultrasonic module sends a signal to the object, then picks up its echo and outputs a wave form whose time period is proportional to the distance. The microcontroller accepts this signal, performs necessary processing and displays the corresponding distance on the 3 digit seven segment display. This circuit finds a lot of application in projects like automotive parking sensors, obstacle warning systems, terrain monitoring robots, industrial distance measurements etc.

INTRODUCTION
HC-SR04 ultrasonic module.
HC-SR04 is an ultrasonic ranging module designed for embedded system projects like this. It has a resolution of 0.3cm and the ranging distance is from 2cm to 500cm. It operates from a 5V DC supply and the standby current is less than 2mA. The module transmits an ultrasonic signal, picks up its echo, measures the time elapsed between the two events and outputs a waveform whose high time is modulated by the measured time which is proportional to the distance. .The photograph of an HC-SR04 module is shown below.

HC-SR04 ultrasonic ranging module (Fig1)
The supporting circuits fabricated on the module makes it almost stand alone and what the programmer need to do is to send a trigger signal to it for initiating transmission and receive the echo signal from it for distance calculation. The HR-SR04 has four pins namely Vcc, Trigger, Echo, GND and they are explained in detail below.
1) VCC : 5V DC supply voltage is connected to this pin.
2) Trigger: The trigger signal for starting the transmission is given to this pin. The trigger signal must be a pulse with 10uS high time. When the module receives a valid

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