MICROCONTROLLER BASED ANESTHESIA INJECTOR
In the hospitals when any major operation is performed, the patient must be in anesthetize condition. If the operation lasts for a long time, say for suppose for 4 or 5 hours, complete dose of anesthesia cannot be administered in a single stroke. It may lead to the patient’s death. If lower amount of anesthesia is administered, the patient may wakeup at the middle of the operation. To avoid this, the anesthetist administers few milliliters of anesthesia per hour to the patient. If the anesthetist fails to administer the anesthesia to the patient at the particular time interval, other allied problems may arise. To overcome such hazardous problems the design of an automatic operation of an anesthesia machine based on a micro-controller is effective. In this system a keypad is provided along with the microcontroller and syringe infusion pump. The anesthetist can set the level of anesthesia in terms of milliliters per hour to administer anesthesia to the patient with the help of keypad. After receiving the signal from the keypad, the microcontroller controls the signal to the desire level and fed into the stepper motor to drive the infusion pump in proper manner. The anesthesia is administered to the patient according to the stepper motor rotation (the syringe will move forward or backward direction). This particular paper will be very much useful to physicians to see the current position of anesthesia of the patients. If the level of anesthesia is decreased to lower level (set value), the alarm will be initiated to alert the physician to refill the anesthesia in the Syringe Pump to continue the process.
An Embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software and additional mechanical parts designed to perform a specific function. An example is the microwave oven. It is hardly realized that the oven actually consists of a processor and the software running inside. Another example is the TV remote control. Very few actually realize that there is a microcontroller inside that runs a set of programs especially for the TV. Automatic Anesthesia Injector system is also an application of embedded technologies in which a microcontroller is used to control the entire device.
A Microcontroller is a general-purpose device that is meant to read data, perform limited calculations on that data and control its environment based on those calculations. The prime use of a microcontroller is to control the operation of a machine using a fixed program that is stored in ROM and that does not change over the lifetime of the system. A microcontroller is a highly integrated chip that includes all or most of the parts needed for a controller in a single chip. The microcontroller could be rightly called a one-chip solution.
MICRO CONTROLLER Vs MICRO PROCESSOR
If a system is developed with a microprocessor, the designer has to go for external memory such as RAM, ROM or EPROM and peripherals and hence the size of the PCB will be large to hold all the required peripherals. But, the micro controller has got all these peripheral facilities on a single chip and hence development of similar system with micro controller reduces PCB size and the overall cost of the design.The difference between a Microprocessor and Microcontroller is that a Microprocessor can only process with the data, but Microcontroller can control external device in addition to processing the data. If a device has to be switched “ON” or “OFF”, external ICs are needed to do this work. But with Microcontroller the device can be directly controlled without an IC. A Microcontroller often deals with bits, not bytes as in the real world application, for example switch contracts can be open or close, indicators should be lit or dark and motors can be either turned on or off and so forth.
References: 1. Microcontroller and their applications – Kenneth J.Ayalaa – Penram International.
2. Bio medical Instrumentation and Application – William John Webster.
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