Topics: Genetic disorders, Microcephaly, Syndromes Pages: 11 (1967 words) Published: January 27, 2009

Submitted to:

Ms. Lorna Ruanto, RN

Submitted by:

Group 44B

Chua, Mark Lawrence

Chiapco, Rose Ann

Concepcion, John King

Contrata, Jennifer

Cruz, Lilet

Deato, Reden


1. To be able to learn and understand the concept of microcephaly.

2. To be able to formulate an effective nursing care plan for an infant having microcephaly.

3. To be able to give recommendations to the parents regarding the next pregnancy to prevent the incidence of having a child with microcephaly.



This study would help us understand the concept about the case. Our knowledge will be expanded when we will be able to discover the cause and effect of this microcephaly.

Microcephaly is a rare condition in which the head is abnormally small.

Microcephaly is usually present at birth, but it can also develop during the first few years of life. Thus, it is possible for the head to be normal in size at birth, but to stop growing at a normal rate, causing it to be too small.

Brain damage during birth can also lead to microcephaly, as can disease or any trauma. Trauma is most likely to lead to microcephaly during the last three months of pregnancy or when the child is a young infant.

  Microcephaly is a condition that can be present at birth in which the baby's head is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. "Micro" means small and "cephaly" refers to the head. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation. However, some children with small heads have normal intelligence. Unfortunately, in other children, the growth of the brain may have been affected by any one of a number of factors.


It is most often caused by genetic abnormalities that interfere with the growth of the cerebral cortex during the early months of fetal development.  But, genetic counseling may help families understand the risk for microcephaly in subsequent pregnancies.


Theoretical Framework
        Microcephaly is a defect involving brain growth that generally results in mental retardation because of the lack of functioning of brain tissue. Many of these infants survive and need varying amounts of custodial care depending upon the extent of retardation. Due to the cited information above, the group utilizes Watson’s Human Caring Theory.  

        In Watson’s Human Caring Theory, the nursing interventions related to human care are referred to as carative factors, a guide Watson refers to as the “Core of Nursing.” Watson outlines the following 10 factors.  

• [pic]    Forming a humanistic-altruistic system of values • [pic]    Instilling faith and hope
• [pic]    Cultivating sensitivity to one’s self and others • [pic]    Developing a helping-trust(human care) relationship • [pic]    Promoting and accepting the expression of positive and negative feelings • [pic]    Systematically using problem-solving method for decision making • [pic]    Promoting interpersonal teaching-learning • [pic]    Providing a supportive, protective or connective mental, physical, sociocultural and spiritual environment • [pic]    Assisting with the gratification of human needs • [pic]    Allowing for the existential phenomenological forces  

In order to deliver an effective care for a patient, the nurse should adapt the fact that human caring involves one’s values, will and commitment to look after the sick patient. These said ideals and values of caring is a starting point that will manifest in one’s judgment and concrete acts in the nurse’s performance. Having the right dedications and full attention in one’s work will be a great factor in the decision-making regarding the welfare of the patient.  

In caring for an infant with microcephaly, he nurse should be sensitive to the needs of the infant. These includes the gratification of...
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