Microbiology Study Guide

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Study Guide Notes ¡V Test 1

CHAPTER 1
1. Linnaeus ¡V naming system
Hooke ¡V cells in cork
Van Leeuwenhoek ¡V animalcules (1st obs. of live microorganisms)
Redi ¡V experiment to disprove spontaneous generation ¡V meat
Needham ¡V experiment to prove spontaneous generation ¡V broth (vital force)
Spallanzani ¡V heated broth did not develop microbial growth
Virchow ¡V biogenesis (living can only arise from preexisting living)
Pasteur ¡V air contained, but did not produce, microbes (broth, s-flasks); pasteurization; lose virility, still immunity
Lister ¡V aseptic surgery (phenol on surgical wounds)
Koch ¡V cause of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) ¡V bacteria in blood, injected into healthy, died, compared bacteria
Jenner ¡V vaccines (cowpox provided immunity against small pox) ¡V milk maids
Erlich ¡V ¡§magic bullet¡¨; salvarsan against syphilis
Fleming ¡V Penicillium chrysogenum inhibited bacteria growth in plate
Beadle & Tatum ¡V one gene one enzyme hypothesis
Avery, MacLeod & McCarty ¡V DNA = hereditary material
Tatum & Lederberg ¡V conjugation
Watson & Crick ¡V aa model for structure/replication of DNA
Jacob & Monod ¡V mRNA
Beijerinck & Winogradsky ¡V microbial ecology

2. Naming: Latinized, Genus 1st - always caps, species 2nd - always lower case, both underlined or italics; descriptive
3. Characteristics
a. Prokaryotes
i. Bacteria
1. Many shapes: bacillus (rods), coccus (sphere), spirilla (spiral)
2. Individually or in groups
3. Reproduce by binary fission ii. Archaea
1. Cell walls NO PEPTIDOGLYCAN
2. Shares characteristics with bacteria and euk, but diff from each
3. Often in extreme environments
4. 3 groups:
a. methanogens (produce methane)
b. extreme thermophiles (hot sulfurous water)
c. extreme halophiles (very salty environments)
b. Eukaryotes
i. Fungi
1. Multi- or Uni-cellular (yeasts)
2. Cell walls mostly chitin
3. Typical fungi = molds
a. Form mycelia, composted of hyphae
4. Reproduce sexually or asexually
ii.

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