MICRO- ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM
TOPIC: NANO -SATELLITE
What is a satellite?
Satellite is a celestial body orbiting around larger body like planet or star. It can be artificial or natural. A natural satellite, is a celestial body that orbits another body, e.g. a planet, which is called its primary. There are 164 known natural satellites orbiting planets in the Solar System, as well as at least eight orbiting IAU-listed dwarf planets. Earth has one large natural satellite, known as the Moon; and Mars has two tiny natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Mercury and Venus have no natural satellite. Saturn has an additional six mid-sized natural satellites massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, and Uranus has five. Artificial satellite is a man-made device orbiting around the earth, moon, or another planet transmitting to earth scientific information or used for communication, navigation etc. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Satellites can be classified by their functions. Satellites are launched into space to do a specific job. The type of satellite that is launched to monitor cloud patterns for a weather station will be different than a satellite launched to send television signals across Canada. The satellite must be designed specifically to fulfill its function. Below are the names of nine different types of satellites- 1. Astronomy satellites - Hubble Space Telescope
2. Atmospheric Studies satellites - Polar
3. Communications satellites - Anik E
4. Navigation satellites - Navstar
5. Reconaissance satellites - Kennan, Big Bird, Lacrosse
6. Remote Sensing satellites - Radarsat
7. Search and Rescue satellites - Cospas-Sarsat
8. Space Exploration satellites - Galileo
9. Weather satellites - Meteosat
What is the reason for miniaturizing satellites?
One reason for miniaturizing satellites is to reduce the cost because heavier satellites require larger rockets with greater thrust which also has greater cost to finance. In retrospect, smaller and lighter satellites require smaller and cheaper launch vehicles and can sometimes be launched in multiples. They can also be launched 'piggyback', using excess capacity on larger launch vehicles. Miniaturized satellites allow for cheaper designs as well as ease of mass production, although few satellites of any size other than 'communications constellations' where dozens of satellites are used to cover the globe, have been mass-produced in practice. Besides the cost issue, the main rationale for the use of miniaturized satellites is the opportunity to enable missions that a larger satellite could not accomplish, such as: a) Constellations for low data rate communications
b) Using formations to gather data from multiple points
c) In-orbit inspection of larger satellites.
d) University Related Research
The term "minisatellite" usually refers to an artificial satellite with a "wet mass" (including fuel) between 100 and 500 kg (220 and 1,100 lb), though these are usually simply called "small satellites". Examples: Demeter, Essaim, Parasol, Picard, Microscope, Taranis, Elisa, Smese, SSOT, Smart-1, Spirale, Jason-1, Jason-2. Microsatellite
Microsatellite or "microsat" is usually applied to the name of an artificial satellite with a wet mass between 10 and 100 kg (22 and 220 lb). Except the mass,the size of satellite is important too. Examples: Astrid-1 and Astrid-2, Nanosatellite
The term "nanosatellite" or "nanosat" is applied to an artificial satellite with...
References: 1. http://nasasearch.nasa.gov/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&affiliate=nasa&query=nanosatellite
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