MGT1FOM Key Management Theorists
The theorists covered in this MGT1FOM Key Management Theorist study reference guide have each made significant contributions to management theory. It is recommended that MGT1FOM students have a working understanding of the contributions of each of these theorists. Unless noted otherwise, the source of the content for each theorist is adapted from: Wren, DA & Bedeian, AG 2009, The Evolution of Management Thought, 6th edn., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Babbage, Charles (1792–1871)
Barnard, Chester Irving (1886–1961)
Fayol, Jules Henri (1841–1925)
Follett, Mary Parker (1868–1933)
Lewin, Kurt T. (1890–1947)
Mayo, George Elton (1880–1949)
McCallum, Daniel Craig (1815–1878)
Poor, Henry Varnum (1812–1905)
Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1856–1915)
Weber, Max (1864–1920)
Babbage, Charles (1792–1871) (pp.66-69)
To call Charles Babbage an irascible genius is to pay him the greatest compliment, for he fitted both qualities and emerged as a significant figure in management thought well before Frederick W. Taylor. Largely technique oriented like his contemporaries, Babbage, through his application of technological aids to human effort, earned a place in history as the patron saint of operations research and management science. He theorized and applied a scientific approach to management long before the scientific management era began in the United States. Born in Devonshire, England, the son of a wealthy banker, Babbage used his inheritance in a lifelong quest ‘‘into the causes of all those little things and events which astonish the childish mind.’’ He remarked that his first question after receiving a new toy was invariably, ‘‘Mamma, what is inside of it?’’ and he also invariably broke open the toy if the answer did not appear satisfactory. The value of his work was recognized by few of his contemporaries, and he was generally considered a crackpot by his neighbors. His personal traits were not endearing to those who disturbed his cogitations. In retaliation against the ubiquitous English organ-grinders, he blew bugles and created a commotion outside his house to scare them away. One contemporary, perhaps a neighbor, wrote, ‘‘He spoke as if he hated mankind in general, Englishmen in particular, and the English Government and organ grinders most of all.’’ The First Computer
Babbage’s scientific output was phenomenal. He demonstrated the world’s first practical mechanical calculator, his difference engine, in 1822. Ninety-one years later, its basic principles were being employed in Burroughs’s accounting machines. Babbage had governmental support in his work on the difference engine, but his irascibility cost him the support of government bureaucrats for his analytical engine, a versatile computer that would follow instructions automatically. As early as 1833 he conceived his analytical engine that could, in effect, scan a stream of instructions and put them into operation. Touring textile mills in France, he saw looms weaving very complicated patterns from instructions cut into cards. A silk weaver, Joseph Marie Jacquard, had developed punched cards strung together to make a chain and to fall at the appropriate time with a hole signaling the loom to lift a thread and become part of the design, or a blank that stopped a thread. The Jacquard loom anticipated the binary zero/one, off/on system of George Boole’s algebra that formed the principle for modern computer operations. Babbage borrowed Jacquard’s concept, but demonstrated foresight in his use of punch cards for the storage of information as well as the guidance of machine operations. Half a century later, Herman Hollerith invented the earliest practical punched-card tabulating machine, probably building on the ideas of Jacquard and Babbage. In concept, Babbage’s computer had all the basic elements of a more modern version. It had a store (or...
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