MGT FIRST EXAM
I hope these material is helpful your review of exam.
1：What is a stereotype?
Stereotypes are used during encoding in order to organize and simplify social information. ”A stereotype is an individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics or attributes of a group.” And how are they maintained?
1). Overestimating stereotypical frequencies
2). incorrectly explaining behaviors
3). Differentiating minority individuals from oneself
Know the common perceptual errors listed on Table 4-1 (p. 88), such as contract effects and halo error. 1) Halo: forming an overall impression and then biasing ratings about the person 2).Leniency: consistently evaluates others in extremely positive fashion. 3).Central: the tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral. 4).Recency effects: the tendency to remember recent information. If the recent information is negative, the person or object is evaluated negatively. 5).contrast effect: the tendency to evaluate people or objects by comparing then with characteristics of recently observed people or objects.
be familiar with the research findings on how social cognition influences hiring, performance appraisal, leadership, and communication (pp. 90-91). Implicit cognition: any thoughts or beliefs automatically activated from memory w/o our conscious awareness How social cognition affects hiring: interviewers make decisions based on impression of how candidate fits perceived requirements. How social cognition affects performance appraisal: faulty schemata about what constitutes good vs poor performance can lead to inaccurate performance appraisals which erode work motivation, commitments and loyalty. And individuals can be trained to be more accurate raters of performance. How social cognition affects leadership: employees’ evaluations of leader effectiveness are influenced by their schemata of good and poor leaders How social cognition affects communication: social perception is a screening process that can distort communication.
4. Be familiar with Kelley’s model of attribution. Define consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency. When do observers of someone’s behavior make internal attributions about that person? (e.g., they blame the person when there is low consensus, low distinctiveness, and high consistency) When do they make external attributions about someone’s behavior? (pp. 92-93) Consensus: involves a comparison of an individual’s behavior with that of his or her peers; high is when they act like the group, low is when they act different. Distinctiveness: is determined by comparing a person’s behavior on one task with their behavior on other tasks; high means the way they perform tasks varies, low means stable performance or quality from various tasks. Consistency: is determined by judging if the individual’s performance on a given task is consistent over time; high implies that a person performs a certain task the same way every time, low means unstable performance.
People attribute external causes (environmental factors) when they perceive high consensus and distinctiveness and low consistency. Internal attributes (personal factors) tend to be made when observed behavior is characterized by low consensus and distinctiveness and high consistency.
Be familiar with two attributional tendencies—fundamental attribution bias and self-serving bias. (pp. 94-95) Fundamental attribution bias: Tendency to attribute other's behavior to internal factors Self-serving bias: we take credit for our successes but blame others or the situation for failures.
6. What “managerial application and implications” can be learned from organizational research on attributional tendencies? (pp. 96-97) 1. Managers tend to disproportionately attribute behaviors to internal causes. 2. Attributional biases may lead to inappropriate managerial actions like promotion, transfers, and layoffs. 3. An employee’s...
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