BIOMATERIALS METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS
B.TECH FINAL YEAR
ROLL NO. 03501
DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
WARANGAL ,ANDHRA PRADESH
BIO MATERIALS - METALLIC IMPLANT MATERIALS
In surgery, a biocompatible material (sometimes shortened to biomaterial) is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. The CLEMSON UNIVERSITY ADVISORY BOARD for BIOMATERIALS has formally defined a biomaterial to be "a systematically and pharmacologically inert substance designed for implantation within or incorporation with living systems." By contrast a biological material is a material such as bone matrix or tooth enamel, produced by a biological system.
The use of biomaterials, as indicated in Table 1, include replacement of a body part that has lost function due to disease or trauma, to assist in healing, to improve function, and to correct abnormalities.
Table 1 Uses of Biomaterials
Replacement of diseased or damaged part
Assist in healing
Correct functional abnormality
Correct cosmetic problem
Aid to diagnosis
Aid to treatment
Artificial hip joint, kidney dialysis machine
Sutures, bone plates and screws
Cardiac pacemaker, contact lens
Harrington spinal rod
Augmentation mammoplasty, chin augmentation
Probes and catheters
Biomaterials can be classified from the point of view of the problem area that is to be solved (Table 1), the body on a tissue level, an organ level (Table 2), or a system level (Table 3). Also classified as metals, polymers, ceramics and composites (Table 4).
Table 2 Biomaterials in Organs
Cardiac pacemaker, artificial heart valve
Contact lens, eye lens replacement
Artificial stapes, cosmetic reconstruction of outer ear
Kidney dialysis machine
Table 3 Biomaterials in Body Systems
Bone plate, total joint replacements
Artificial heart valves, blood vessels
Sutures, burn dressings, artificial skin
Catheters, kidney dialysis machine
Hydrocephalus drain, cardiac pacemaker
Microencapsulated pancreatic islet cells
Augmentation mammoplasty, other cosmetic replacements
Table 4 Materials for use in body
Easy to fabricate
bio compatible, inert
Strong in compression
Strong, tailor made
Deform with time
Difficult to make
Difficult to make
Sutures, blood vessels, hip socket, ear, nose, other soft tissues
Joint replacement, bone plates & screws, dental root implants
Dental, hip socket
Joint implants, heart valves
The use of biomaterials did not become practical until the advent of aseptic surgical technique in the 1860s. Earlier surgical procedures were generally unsuccessful as a result of infection. The earliest successful implants, as well as a large fraction of modern ones, were in the skeletal system. Bone plates which were introduced in the early 1900s to aid fixation of fractures broke as a result of unsophisticated mechanical design; they were too thin and had stress-concentrating corners. It was discovered that materials such as vanadium steel, which were chosen for good mechanical properties, corroded...
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